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Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 

Eleanor Taylor Calverly and Grace Taylor Calverly 





Compiled by 
Belle J. Allen, M.D. 

Edited by 
Caroline Atwater Mason 

6odhadan only Son and He was a Missionary and a Physician" 


Published bv 

The Central Committee on the United Study or Foreign Missions 

West Medford, Mass. 

Copyright, February, 191 9 

The Central Committee on the United 

Study or Foreign Missions 

The Vermont Printing Co., 
Brattleboro, Vermont, U. S. A. 


Upon the recommendation of the Committee of 
Twenty-eight "The Conservation of Human Life" 
was chosen for 1919-20 as the general theme for the 
text-books of the groups composing that committee. 
The Woman's Foreign Missionary section had long 
considered a study of Medical Missions and is glad 
to present this, its nineteenth text-book. 

Dr. Allen has served as a medical missionary in 
India and has not only assembled much material 
from many lands, but has drawn on her own rich 
experience in the Butler Memorial Hospital at 

Mrs. Mason, who has given us two excellent study 
books. Lux Christi and World Missions and World 
Peace^ has rendered valuable assistance to Dr. Allen 
and the Committee by adding to the material and 
putting it into form. 

The usual reading list is omitted and reference is 
made in footnotes to the few available books of ref- 
erence. It is hoped that Boards will publish in 
pamphlet form complete records of their medical 
missionaries and their work. 

With the passing of the acute need for Red Cross 
and medical work in connection with the war, a 
need which women have met heroically, we earnestly 

4 A Crusade of Compassion 

appeal for their sympathetic study of the even 
greater age-long need of women and children, who 
live and die without any medical care whatever. 
Every argument and appeal for Red Cross work, 
for hospitals, ambulances, equipment, nurses and 
doctors, may be strengthened a hundredfold for 
medical missions for women and children in view of 
the numbers who suffer unattended on the great 
battlefield of motherhood and childhood. 

To circulate this book widely among men and 
women is to render a great service to humanity and 
its Saviour. We no longer ask "who is my neighbor?'* 
— ^That question has become an accusation. These 
world neighbors of ours need immediate aid. The 
Red Cross has taught us how to minister to the 
needs of our soldiers. The Cross of Christ alone 
can enable us to meet this greater need adequately. 

Mrs. Henry W. Peabody, Chairman. 
Miss Olivia H. Lawrence. 
Mrs. Frank Mason North. 
Mrs. James A. Webb, Jr. 
Mrs. a. V. Pohlman. 
Miss Alice M. Kyle. 
Miss Grace T. Colburn. 



Introduction 7 

Chapter I. The Battalion of Life . . 11 

Chapter II. India 45 

Chapter III. China 75 

Chapter IV. Korea, the Philippine 

Islands and Siam 117 

Chapter V. The Near East . . . . 163 

Chapter VI. Africa and the Promise 

OF THE Future 193 





The Doctor in Arabia . . . . . . . Frontispiece 

Bas Relief, Woman's Medical College, Philadelphia 9 

Dr. Gurubai Karmarkar, Bombay, India .... 24 

Miss Edith Brown, M.A., M.D 32 

Children in Hospital Winter Garments .... 41 

Resident Staff, David Gregg Hospital .... 56 

Native Ambulance in China 56 

Nurses in Margaret Williamson Hospital ... 73 

Margaret Williamson Hospital, Shanghai, China . 73 

Witch Doctor and the Kraal for her Goats . . 88 

Medical Missionary pulling a tooth, India . . 88 

Dr. Esther Kim Pak, Korea 105 

Students and Staff of Peking Union Medical School 120 

Dr. Anna D. Gloss, China 137 

Another Native Ambulance, China 137 

Dr. Li-Bi-Cu, Ngucheng, China 152 

A Notable Christian Doctor of Burma . . . . 161 

Dr. Ida S. Scudder, Vellore, India 169 

Hackett Medical College, Canton, China ... 182 

Margaret Williamson Hospital, Shanghai, China . 194 


The general theme adopted for this year's study 
by the Committee of Twenty-eight is "The Con- 
servation of Human Life." The very word "conser- 
vation" is filled today with new values, and carries 
with it a commendable practical note, which appeals. 
The need for it is intensified in these tragical days, 
beyond any other days in human experience. How 
to make sheltered women at home realize the need 
for conservation in non-Christian lands is a prob- 
lem, for the conditions under which the majority 
of other women exist are almost unbelievable — 
unless they are experienced, seen and felt. 

Effectually to change the conditions and carry 
the message of freedom to our neighbors across the 
seas will require a united effort, a tremendous 
effort, on the part of those who profess to know 
and follow our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ. 
All the eagerness, all the self-sacrificing devotion, 
all the purpose-to-win of the soldier will be necessary. 

The harem woman, the zenana woman, the 
foot-bound, mind-bound woman has fio Publicity 
Committee! Few may voice her needs, her suffering, 
her aspirations, her capacity to help to apply the 
remedy, which is for the healing of the nations. 

8 A Crusade of Compassion 

What has been done is but a drop in the ocean 
of what may be done, nay, more, what must be 
done if women at home prove themselves worthy 
of the men and women who are laying down their 
lives for our freedom. The whole Church must be 
mobilized. No woman who seeks a worth-while 
task can afford to miss having a share in it. Closed 
hospitals, which a little self-denial might open; 
suffering children, unattended; women crying out 
inarticulately for help which you can give — this 
little handbook goes forth to try to make you hear 
that cry — and hearing it to respond. The response 
is the measure of your interest not in them or /V, 
but in the Man, Christ Jesus, who is still saying 
today, "I have given you an example." 

B. J. A. 



The Battalion, 

Need for the Battalion, 
Personnel of the Battalion, 
Ideals of the Battalion. 
Review of the Battalion, 



"'Every non-Christian land is a land of pain/* 

A. J. Brown, D.D. 

As the second decade of the twentieth century 
closes we hear much of the international mind. 
And well we may. Nationalism, over-stressed, 
hard, exclusive, self-centred, has been terribly dis- 
played in the eyes of the whole world as carried 
to its logical limits: the purpose of supremacy for 
one nation over all others. Hence have come the 
great betrayal of civilization and all our woe. 

Mighty reaction from such ultra-nationalism 
has seized upon us. The higher patriotism has 
been born, world-patriotism. At last the world is 
ready to declare all men to be brothers. Before the 
sorrows of devastated and broken peoples the na- 
tions strike hands in a league of compassion. Our 
strongest political, scientific, and financial intellects* 
are set to work, together with hearts the tenderest, 
to organize availing help, to bind up the broken- 
hearted, to restore the maimed, the halt, and the 
blind, to build again the waste places of earth. 
This great arousal must not be permitted to fade 
as a passing phase of emotion, — a transient thing. 
Surely, this torrential stream of sympathy can be 


12 A Crusade of Compassion 

directed through channels broad, deep, and per- 
manent toward the wide-world anguish hitherto so 
faintly recognized. 

What of the Church of Christ in this hour of 
opportunity? This is the unparalleled crisis which 
demands sanctified statesmanship. 

"There is a tide in the affairs of men. 
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune," 
to spiritual as to temporal victory. 
The Church's The Church shows herself ready to 
new day. open her places of worship for kindly 

deeds and measures of relief; she gives discreetly 
of her material wealth; she responds sincerely to 
appeals perpetually made upon her compassion, 
but is there danger that after all she may miss the 
hour's supreme challenge .^^ that she may fail to know 
that this is indeed her day.^ For, "in a minute it 
is going to strike twelve on the clock of the world; 
what we do now we do forever.** The tide of the 
passion for humanity, now at the flood, proceeds 
from the heart of the compassionate Christ who so 
loved the world that He offered Himself a willing 
sacrifice for its sin and sorrow; it is a Christ-like 
thing, the Church's own. To her great day may 
the Church in America aWake, rejoicing as a strong 
'man to run a race, entering with new hope and 
moral earnestness upon the glorious world-saving 
enterprise, begun in time of war a century ago. 
Let her plans of campaign be bigger, bolder, braver 
than ever. Let her fill her premier place as she 
was first among us to initiate the international mind 
even in the day of things small and provincial, 
when the United States had hardly attained nation- 

The Battalion of Life 13 

al consciousness; let her claim her right to count 
as pioneer in the new internationalism, for her 
horizon for a hundred years has been bounded, not 
by America, not by Europe, but by Asia, Africa, 
the Islands of the Seas. It is the Church's right 
to lead in the new day, not to follow; to go forth 
as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, 
terrible as an army with banners. 
A soldier's A British soldier, one of "Kitchener's 

testimony. men," lying wounded to the death, 

early in the war, wrote to friends at home as follows: 
"Lying here in the hospital, helpless three months 
from shrapnel wounds which refuse to heal, I have 
been thinking. You know I have been all over 
the world. It would seem that I should have 
plenty to think about. Strange, isn't it, that my 
thoughts always go back to the one theme of for- 
eign missions, especially as I never thought of them 
before but in derision; yes, and that notwithstand- 
ing help cheerfully given me at mission hospitals. 
I do not remember giving a single penny to foreign 
missions in my life. It was so easy to prate about 
their uselessness, all so cheap and popular, too. 
Even as I traveled in distant lands, sometimes well- 
knowing that but for the work of missionaries there 
had been no road for me, I still refused to own the 
blessings that were conferred on the natives. I 
think that stranger even than my ingratitude for 
help generously given me in missiorl hospitals, for 
gold was my God. My whole energies were set 
on trade. I might in common fairness have recog- 
nized who prepared the way for markets which I 
found so profitable, but I did not. When the call 

14 A Crusade of Compassion 

to arms came, as you will remember I told you in 
an earlier letter, I was in London, home on furlough. 
I joined Lord Kitchener*s men. You sent me a 
New Testament. I have it now. Reading at 
random one night for want of something better 
to do, I was struck by the words of John 17:3: "And 
this is life eternal, that they might know Thee, the 
only true God, and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast 
sent." I could not forget those words. They 
have been with me every waking hour these twelve 
months. They are with me now, and who can 
tell how precious I find them? They caused me 
to care not a jot for this poor, maimed body, soon 
to be set aside. I have found a Friend, oh! such 
a Friend, and I realize now that this Friend cares 
for every savage of our race, even as He cares for 
me, and why should He not? Ah, there is the 
secret of my contempt for foreign missions. I had 
not then thought of life eternal. Would God I 
had earlier known the new birth. I envy you 
fellows who have done so much for the cause. I 
would gladly die for it now when it is too late. As 
I think of the loyalty of subject races so gloriously 
exhibited in this day of stress; as I picture those 
splendid Indians seen in France, my mind still 
refuses to absorb anything but the great central 
fact — we have here the fruition of the work of* 
British missionaries and of the prayers of mission- 
ary-hearted men. It is sweet to die for England. 
I do not regret it. It is sweet to see the devotion 
of tender nurses about our beds. A few vagrant 
thoughts flutter for a moment over these consola- 
tions. But to die in glory of contemplation of what 

The Battalion of Life 15 

it is to minister and to die in service for the King 
of kings ! That will never be my part. Perhaps it 
might have been had somebody taken me in hand 
early enough. Why does the Church keep foreign 
missions so much in the background? How is it 
that I was left so long a scoffer? I do not blame 
any mortal. I am saying that something is wrong 
with a scheme of things which fails to put the 
whole world for Christ right in the forefront as 
the battle-cry of the Christian Church,** 

7. The Battalion 

The conception of the host of Christ's followers 
as an advancing army, of the spread of Christ's 
Kingdom as a holy warfare with the forces of sin, 
has been familiar through the ages from St. Paul 
to Bishop Heber. Vast regions, indeed, remain 
unconquered still, but* like a mighty army the 
Church of God still moves on, bringing good tidings, 
publishing peace and salvation. As the Son of 
God goes forth to war we observe among those 
who follow in His train one battalion strangely 
silent, although in full order of battle. 

This battalion marches forward without glitter- 
ing insignia, waving banners or thrill of martial 
music, but it keeps step with the main army, knows 
the same discipline of obedience and self-denial, 
advances under the same leadership toward the 
one objective. That objective is the conservation 
of human life in two worlds, that which now is 
and that which is to come; and with this we find 
enfolded, as the flower is enfolded in the bud, the 

1 6 A Crusade of Compassion 

lifting-up of men and women and young children 
from present misery and degradation to a decent 
human plane of living where are found purity and 
peace, hope and joy. 

When we perceive the full purpose of the ad- 
vancing host of the Prince of Peace we recognize 
this silent division with a thrill of emotion; — it is the 
Battalion of Life! 

For this company embodies love in action, being 
composed of men and women of the Order of the 
Great Physician, who go forth in His Name to the 
service of the sick and sorrowful and oppressed in 
the dark places of the earth. We name them med- 
ical missionaries. 

Sacredness On the eve of his departure for 

of human life. France one of the new recruits, a 
colored lad, said to another simply, "I am ready to 
fight, glad to die if need be to defend just plain 
human rights. They are worth dying for." Plain 
human rights! And the first of these is the right 
to live. The sacredness of human life is a concep- 
tion peculiar to Christianity; to vindicate that 
conception and to establish it is essentially the aim 
of the Battalion of Life. The challenge comes to 
the whole Church. These soldiers of Christ believe 
that, being created in God*s image, every man and 
woman, whether born in the Occident or in the 
Orient, has a sacred right to life temporal and life 
eternal, and to conditions of life, if not little lower 
than those of angels, at least a little higher than 
those of beasts of the field. Where they go, in 
place of despair, torment, corruption, life and peace 
spring up as of old when Jesus walked in Galilee. 

The Battalion of Life 17 

^^ ^ From whom has the Battalion of 

The Commission. _.- ... ,, , ..^ 

Life received its call and commission: 
He sent them to preach the Kingdom of God and 
to heal the sick. 

And Jesus went about all the cities and villages^ 
teaching in their synagogues and preaching the gospel 
of the Kingdom and healing every sickness and every 
disease among the people. But when He saw the 
multitudes^ He was moved with compassion on them^ 
because they fainted and were scattered abroad. . . 
And when He had called his twelve disciples^ He gave 
them power over unclean spirits to cast them out, and 
to heal all manner of disease. . . , And Jesus 
saidy Freely ye have received, freely give. 

The Great Physician calls for volunteers for His 
Battalion of Life and thus commissions them. Call 
and commission are alike divine. 

//. Need for the Battalion 

It may be briefly said that the heed for medical 
missions is as imperative as the wireless call S.O.S. 
which no ship sailing the seven seas ignores. It 
is imperious, imperative, importunate. 
Vastness of The heathen nations (phrase which 

^^^' in general connotes the nations des- 

titute of enlightened theory or practice of sanitation, 
disease prevention, medicine, or surgery) number 
about one billion. This estimate includes two 
hundred and two million Moslems, not technically in- 
cluded in the term heathen. Arrayed over against 
these ignorant and suffering masses the Christian 
world has now in the field a force of one thousand 
and eleven missionary physicians, of which number 


1 8 A Crusade of Compassion 

about three hundred are women. In addition there 
are two hundred and sixty-seven native Christian 
practitioners. An illustration of the condition of 
need here indicated is given by the statement of 
the Imperial Gazetteer of India, in a late issue, 
that "even in large towns the great majority die 
without having been seen by any person competent 
to diagnose the case." The six thousand human 
beings who die without medical relief every year 
in a city like Calcutta are a mere fraction of the 
rate of preventable mortality throughout the remote 
villages and rural districts. This in some regions 
reaches sixty-two per cent, of the whole number 
of deaths. 

Inadequately have these facts been realized in 
the hearts and minds of Christian people. When 
this realization dawns who can doubt that millions 
of dollars will be poured forth for the succor of 
humanity in darkened lands with the same gener- 
ous spirit shown by our country in the relief of 
suffering in Europe.^ Not less surely will the ranks 
of the Battalion be filled with loyal soldiers and 
servants of the Great Physician. 
Superstition and Not alone in the immensity of need 
ignorance prime do we hear the ring of this challenge, 

causes of need. ^^^ -^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ suffering 

resulting from spiritual oppression. Are our ears 
sensitive to the S.O.S. call of humanity? Have we 
ever seriously asked ourselves what business we 
have to be indifferent to human need.? Is there 
not warning enough given in the dehumanizing 
effect of such an attitude of indifference? "O that 
we had eyes to see and ears to hear!" 

The Battalion of Life 19 

The wounded in battle, the sick and suffering in 
Europe today appeal to us, because the mind is 
kept constantly reminded through publicity meas- 
ures. They may be our own or near to us in some 
way and our realization is greater. Millions are 
poured forth for meeting their need and ought to 
be. Shall we remain blind and deaf to this other 
greater call? What would be the result if with 
our expeditionary force there were no medical corps; 
if the barest rudiments of sanitation and hygiene 
were undreamed of? What if the Red Cross and 
all it stands for in self-sacrificing ministrations had 
never entered the heart of man to conceive, much 
less to execute? What if there were no generous 
and compassionate public constantly back of it all, 
making possible these gentle ministrations? What 
if there were no knowledge of surgery to restore 
our wounded boys? — if insanity were thought to 
be a form of demoniacal possession, and the insane 
were chained to rocks and left to die or buried 

Native Suppose all of our own sick were 

practices. objects of loathing or of fear? Sup- 

pose they knew only how to suffer, but were strangers 
to relief from suffering? Suppose the best treat- 
ment known for pneumonia were to burn a hole 
through the chest with a red-hot iron, and this 
ignorance was the work of religious leaders or of the 
priests? Suppose your only child were burned and 
the native physician only knew how to prescribe the 
cow-dung poultice? Or suppose your child were 
needlessly blind, because of the ignorance or neg- 
lect or both of attendants at its birth? Suppose 


ao A Crusade of Compassion 

you were enduring the lancinating pain of ophthal- 
mia, and sight depended upon intelligent care? 
Suppose *the specialist' should prescribe a solution 
of red peppers or pierce the eye with a needle and 
take the sight out with it? Suppose you were the 
mother of a family, ill nigh unto death, and 'the 
family physician,' after exhausting all of his de- 
coctions of snake stews and spiders' legs, provided 
the panacea — milk in which the toe of the priest 
had been washed? 

But suppose it were only the toothache and 
after tying up toes and arms and legs with sacred 
threads and bits of wood you were dominated 
by the fear of losing the eye if the tooth were • 
drawn, because your priest told you so? But be- 
yond the treatment of disease, suppose your || 
priest keeps you ignorant of the causes of disease? 
Suppose you firmly believe that people about you — 
anyone — can Vish upon you' such harm that all 
your life is spent in fear of the evil eye? You 
blacken your child's eyelids so the Evil Eye will 
not recognize it, and call it by a false name to mis- 
lead the evil spirit bent on afflicting it. Suppose 
*the family doctor,' who is also a prophet and priest, 
only knows enough to warn you of the prevalence 
of evil spirits, and you pay him well to propitiate 
them and protect you from their presence? Sup- 
pose it is by his authority that you are ignorant 
and, notwithstanding his promised protection, dis- 
ease stalks unbidden and unrecognized into your 
house in the form of plague or fever or cholera, 
and he only knows enough to exact tribute and yet 
more tribute to exorcise these evil spirits, assuring 

The Battalion of Life 21 

you the pestilence is all due, no doubt, to the curse 
of the women folks in the house? Suppose he as- 
sures you that the "Western way'* will cause your 
house to be burned down, or only daughters to be 
born to your house or that your only son will be 
taken? And suppose you know no other way, 
because this ego-maniac has decreed that wisdom 
will die with him? 

Suppose your whole life is one perpetual bondage 
to fear — fear of malevolence in some insidious 
form, lurking to spring upon you; fear of spirits, 
fear of hot remedies, fear of cold ones, fear of milk, 
fear of fruit, fear of water, fear of shadows, fear of 
sounds, fear of tears, so that the child who weeps 
must be fed opium to keep that evil spirit quiet 
and you know no other way? Would your ears 
be gladdened by the knowledge of a better cure 
than these? So would those of heathen women! 
Would you rejoice in your innermost being that a 
sovereign remedy had been found? So would they! 
Would you be thankful from the depths of your 
being that the Battalion of Life had heard your 
call and were coming in numbers large enough to 
meet the need? So would they! Would you not 
be glad to have a share in providing a fighting 
chance for innocent childhood? Would you not 
be overjoyed to have a hand at breaking the shackles 
of imprisoned womanhood? 

The Great Physician calls for volunteers for the 
Battalion of Life. This is much, but it is not all. 
Not only is the challenge heard in the immensity 
of the extent of need and the measure of relievable 
human suffering due to ignorance, but the challenge 

22 A Crusade of Compassion 


comes also in the character of service — a service 
no less heroic than that on the battlefields of France. 
It must be as unspectacular as the courage dis- 
played by those brave soldiers who deliberately 
dared wasting illness in order that millions of other 
lads might be spared the suffering of trench fever, 
but in quality and kind it is a service unsurpassed 
even by that. 11 

Testimony of a Says Isabella Bird Bishop: "I have 
famous traveler, traveled for more than seven years 
in Asia and as a traveler entirely unconnected with 
missions except by sympathy and interest. As a 
traveler, I desire to bear the very strongest testi- 
mony that can be borne to the blessings of medical 
missions wherever they can be carried on as they 
ought to be. On the western frontier of China, 
I would say that a medical missionary might do 
more than twenty evangelistic missionaries at the 
present time, and there is room, I was going to 
say, for fifty medical missionaries in the world 
where there is but one now, and not only room for 
them but a claim for them." 

Conservation of That cleanliness is a next-door neigh- 
child life. bor of godliness is a truism which 
needs no demonstration: that cleanliness is vital 
to healthy human life, and in an especial measure 
to child life, is a no less familiar fact in Western 
civilization. But not so in the East. Water for 
drinking purposes is drawn from rivers or tanks 
used as public bathing places. The most elementary 
rules of sanitary care are disregarded, because 
wholly unknown. No wonder that infant mortal- 
ity reaches an appalling rate. Here we cannot 

The Battalion of Life 23 

stress cure of the numberless filth diseases; prevention 
is first and last the cardinal principle. Every Chris- 
tian hospital and dispensary is a social centre, not 
for healing alone, but for the distribution of the 
axioms of cleanliness. And the method works 
where it can be applied. 

Some months ago the editor of this 

A questionnaire. . , 1 r • 

book sent out a number of copies 

of a printed circular containing twenty-nine ques- 
tions to missionary physicians, both men and 
women, in India, Korea, the Philippines, and China. 
Question number 16 is as follows: **Is anything 
done in prenatal or postnatal care?" Out of twenty 
filled-in questionnaires taken at random from the 
mass, only four answers to this question are yeSy 
and this answer is qualified by mention of the 
favorable results having come through missionary 
efforts. Desperation rings in one answer, "No. 
Hopeless, because of lack of cleanliness." But full 
of promise as of pathos is the occasional two-word 
reply: ''Not yet.'' 

Another question (number 13) reads: "Is any- 
thing done to conserve Human life, outside of mis- 
sionary or governmental activities?" To this the 
answers read variously, "Very, very little," "Prac- 
tically nil," "No!" "God looks after most of the 
poor out here" (this last from Korea from one 
whose nearest foreign fellow-physician is two hundred 
miles away, nearest hospital two hundred miles, 
nearest dentist five hundred miles distant). Another 
reports her nearest medical neighbor and hospital 
distant an eight-days' journey. Under question 18, 
concerning epidemics, occurs the sub-question, "What 


24 A Crusade of Compassion 

is the root cause of them?" With startling monot- 
ony come the answers: "Filth," "Dirt," "Un- 
cleanliness and ignorance," "Filth and supersti- 
tion," "Overcrowding and dirt," "Ignorance, pre- 
judice, pollution of water," etc. One answers 
laconically, "Lack of doctors." Involuntarily rises 
before one the picture of smug city blocks, here at 
home, with a shining plate at every other door 
bearing a physician's name and title, and within, 
perchance, a qualified man or woman, looking out 
anxiously for the patients who do not come. 
The pity of it, and yet again, the pity of it! 

III. Personnel of the Battalion 

In describing the Battalion of Life we noted that 
it was made up of men and women, the latter, 
indeed, somewhat in the minority, but holding 
their own valorously. 

The question arises. Do women belong in the 
profession of medicine and, in particular, are they 
fitted for the peculiarly difficult conditions to be 
encountered on heathen ground? 

The first division of the question seems to have 
answered itself in the United States and Great 
Britain where medical women have now won for 
themselves assured standing. It was not always so. 
Women in The story reads like a tale of the 

medicine. (^i^i past and yet we have to go back 

but two generations to reach its beginnings. "Men- 
tally, morally, and physically unfit," was the dictum 
of authority in the profession. 

All the soldier's courage, heroism, and invincible 
"dogged as does it" were demonstrated by the pio- 

Bombay, India 

The Battalion of Life 25 

neers of the woman's medical work. Offensive 
language was heaped upon the early students; hisses, 
caterwaulings, yells, missiles greeted their appear- 
ance in the amphitheatre. 

The medical fraternities in all lands took up the 
burden of opposition. Elizabeth Blackwell en- 
countered it when she had to apply to twelve differ- 
ent institutions in 1849 before the faculty of the 
Geneva Medical College finally admitted her within 
its doors. "Conservative women" drew aside their 
skirts when she met them in church. No respect- 
able roof in New York would shelter her for an 
office, and she was obliged to buy a house in which 
to practice. 

"Dr. Elizabeth Shattuck,* who was graduated in 
1854, entered upon her career with the thought of 
becoming a medical missionary — probably the first 
woman to entertain such a wild idea. After grad- 
uating she sought opportunity for hospital expe- 
rience without success, but her determination to 
reach her heart's desire was such that at length 
she applied as head nurse at the Philadelphia Hos- 
pital. After three years of hard work she applied 
to her mission board only to be refused because 
she was unmarried. Later, when Vassar College 
was established, Dr. Shattuck was appointed resident 
physician and professor of physiology and hygiene. 

"A group of Quakers, a sect which has never 
hesitated to champion a cause which it deemed 
just even though public sentiment might be against 
it, through the medium of Dr. Bartholomew Fussel, 

* Address by Dr. Ellen R. Potter of Woman's Medical College. 


26 A Crusade of Compassion 

a physician of repute in Chester County, seems to 
have evolved first the idea of a medical school for 
women, the foundation of his thought being that 
women should have the same opportunity in life 
as men. A group of those interested in the cause 
secured a charter in the name of the Female Medical 
College of Pennsylvania, March ii, 1850. Every 
obstacle conceivable was put in the way by the 
then-existing authorities. As late as 1859 resolu- 
tions of excommunication were issued against every 
physician who should teach in the school, every 
woman graduated from it and everybody else who 
should consult with such teachers. Nevertheless, 
the effort was not in vain. The Woman's Medical 
College of Pennsylvania has not only prospered, 
but has prepared more women as medical mission- 
aries than any other institution in the United States." 
The first woman physician in England was treated 
with scorn and rudeness and amazement when she 
entered upon the study of medicine. One physi- 
cian, more tolerant than the rest, said, "Why not 
be a nurse?" and the kindly old doctor yielded 
finally to her importunities under a definite agree- 
ment that she was to dress like a nurse and promise 
seriously not to look too intelligent. 
Status of women It is needless to enlarge upon the 
in the Orient. oppressive attitude of the men of the 
Orient toward women, but a few words are called 
for on this point since the woman medical mission- 
ary finds just here prime justification for her pres- 
ence. In India the Code of Manu, older than the 
Law of Moses, settled the status of Hindu woman- 
hood. "Though destitute of every virtue, or seeking 

The Battalion of Life 27 

pleasure elsewhere, or devoid of good qualities, 
yet a husband must be constantly worshipped as a 
god by a faithful wife." (Manu V, section 154.) 
"Sinful woman must be as foul as falsehood itself. 
This is a fixed law." (Manu IX.) Common 
proverbs run like the following: "He is a fool who 
considers his wife as his friend." "Educating a 
woman is like putting a knife in the hands of a 

In China the inferior position of women is less 
formally declared, but in practice there is little to 
choose. "The social system is terribly deficient in 
providing for the natural and divine rights of 
women." (Dr. A. H. Smith.) To illustrate: A 
missionary woman physician was called on to treat 
a sick woman in Canton. The family was poor 
and the one comfortable chamber in the forlorn 
house was occupied by a big buffalo or "water-cow," 
while the sufferer lay in a stifling inner room. The 
missionary begged the husband to reverse this 
arrangement. The man objected. "If I put my 
wife in that room and my buflfalo in the inner room, 
the buflfalo may get sick as my wife has got sick," 
he demurred. 

"But your wife will die if she stays there," pro- 
tested the physician. "Give her a good room." 

"But if I give the buffalo the poor room," per- 
sisted the husband, "and he gets sick, he will die; 
and it costs more to buy a buffalo than it does to 
buy a woman." 

Buddhism, although driven out of India, is the 
religion of millions of the people of the East, includ- 
ing Burma, Ceylon, Siam, China, and Japan. One 

28 A Crusade of Compassion 

sentiment of Buddha suffices to show forth the 
position of woman among his followers: Buddha 
rejoiced that he had escaped three curses: that he 
was not born in hell, or as a vermin, or as a woman; 
thus he left a blight upon all the women of Bud- 

The religion of Mohammed is even worse, for the 
very Heaven of the Koran is contingent upon the 
eternal degradation of womanhood. 

The African woman is whipped and worked like 
a beast of burden, bought and sold and inherited 
like other property. Neither her childhood nor 
her motherhood is held sacred. She is the prey 
of the strong; her virtue is despised, her ruin en- 
couraged. Her degradation is complete whether 
under animism or Mohammedanism, for the latter 
is "rotten to the core.*' 

Thus we see that the major native religions of 
the Orient and Africa bring neither help nor hope 
to womanhood. Christian civilization has made 
of woman a person and a comrade for man; heathen 
civilization has made her a slave and a thing con- 
temptible. How can a more effective blow be 
struck against the stronghold of this social oppres- 
sion in heathendom than the entrance within its 
borders of Christian women dedicated to a life of 
mercy and healing; women free, firm, benign, in- 
tellectually developed, broad-minded, subservient 
to none, but ministering to all, the flower of a 
religion which counts them equal to men? Their 
professional service, great as that must be, may 
prove secondary in the end to the impression which 
they themselves must make upon the social scheme 

The Battalion of Life 29 

into which they enter. Naturally, however, their 
personal influence will work silently; its work will 
be gradual, invisible, spiritual and so much the 
more powerful in time. 

The practical work of medical mis- 
sionaries on the field is many-sided 
and manifold, including dispensary and clinical 
work; medical and surgical; the training of nurses; 
instruction in regard to sanitation, cleanliness, nu- 
trition; hospital work; professional training schools 
and colleges for native women. All this is what our 
women medical missionaries are performing today 
at every station where they are found, but re- 
sponsibility for those services is only half, the lesser 
half, of the responsibility they carry. The healing 
of the spirit is ever present as the supreme pur- 
pose, to be reached through the healing of the 
body. This purpose will be considered under the 
division of the subject next to follow. The remaining 
question at this point is, Do women show them- 
selves capable of holding their place in the Bat- 
talion of Life as it advances to the hand-to-hand 
grapple with sin-sickness in heathendom? Have 
they "made good*'.? 

Let us glance through records of service past and 
present, and quote, almost at random, a few names; 
the plain, unvarnished facts will give us the most 
eloquent answer. 

Miss Hewlett of the Church of England Zenana 
Missionary Society, who came to Amritsar, North 
India, in 1879, ^^^ ^^^ o^ the small group of women 
who undertook single-handed to carry on a medical 
mission before it was possible to obtain a British 

30 A Crusade of Compassion 

qualification in medicine. She founded St. Cath- 
erine's Hospital over which she presided for twenty- 
eight years and which in succeeding years furnished 
medical workers for all parts of India. Its influence 
is felt far and wide today, since it is a recruiting 
and training ground for Indian Christian nurses. 
Miss Hewlett was instrumental also in starting the 
Medical School for Women at Ludhiana. 

A tiny city dispensary of two rooms was opened 
in the Mohammedan quarter of Amritsar, where, 
on the first day, only one woman timidly presented 
herself for treatment. The institution has ex- 
panded to a building two hundred and fifty-five 
feet in length, capable of holding forty-two patients, 
while altogether one hundred people live on the 
premises. Three large dispensaries are connected 
with it, the third being situated close to the Golden 
Temple, at a spot frequented by women who come 
to bathe in the Sacred Tank, and, therefore, pecur- 
liarly advantageous. A converts' school, a training 
home for nurses and compounders, a creche, an 
industrial home for the blind, and a convalescent 
home for destitute women are some of the agencies 
grouped together around St. Catherine's. 

As early as 1884 the care of the Maternity Hospi- 
tal was committed to Miss Hewlett by the munic- 
ipal authorities, since which time the systematic 
training of midwives has always been a most im- 
portant and successful department of the work. 
Naturally, opportunities for reaching women in 
their own homes have multiplied, and zenana 
visitation has received a tremendous impetus. A 
large share in special ministry to the famine-stricken 


The Battalion of Life 31 

has been taken by the Am ri tsar workers, and 
during 1900 fifty widows and children from the 
Bhil country were received at St. Catherine's. 

In this one home of healing, the devoted workers 
minister to as many as thirty-three thousand in 
the year, while upwards of three thousand visits 
are paid to patients in their homes. Who can 
gauge the result of such widespread seed-sowing 
and individual dealing with sin-sick souls as these 
figures represent? 

Think next of that intrepid medical woman, 
Martha Sheldon, who, accompanied by her little 
band of workers, established herself in her "house 
of cloth" in Thibet, "the roof of the world," where 
her wonderful cures and successful treatment of 
cataracts opened the door for the Christ to enter 
into other women's hearts. 

In his latest book on Thibet, Mr. Henry Savage 
Landor says, "At Sirka a Christian church of stone 
has arisen — the first one in British Thibet — the 
work of the untiring and self-sacrificing Miss Shel- 
don of America.". . . . Many lamas became 
her patients and only a few months before her 
death she went again over the lofty Lipu Pass — the 
entrance into Thibet, over seventeen thousand feet 
high — and over the Utla Pass, after traversing 
which the Lakes burst upon the traveler's vision. 
In her report for 191 2 we find the following: 

"Again medical work opened the way for me to 
spend two weeks in Thibet. I was called to Lake 
Manasarowar to operate for cataract upon women 
living near its monastery, and performed the opera- 
tions in the stone house built for pilgrims and 

32 A Crusade of Compassion 

traders outside. Just before reaching the Lakes 
we saw the symmetrical Kailas Pahor Mountain. 
The snows had so melted as to cut a huge, black 
cross upon its white surface. The effect was won- 

"It seemed as if the Christ had gone before us, 
as indeed He has. I am reminded that fair, wooded 
Nepal and bleak, wind-swept Thibet lie almost 
wholly unevangelized. Right here in Bhot, which 
with Thibet is the tramping place and trading place 
of nations, there are indeed souls to conquer for 
Christ^s Kingdom. As we walked slowly over the 
mountains up and down, I pondered whether I was 
living out of touch with the world in thus traveling 
so slowly in these days of lightning speed. I decided 
it all depended upon one's life work. Mine is to 
reach and to win the Bhotiyas and those allied to 
them to Christ. They travel with their great flocks 
of loaded sheep slowly. I, in traveling thus, came 
more in touch with them, so I content myself with 
a very humble work, in a very humble corner, in 
a very humble way." 

Among the pioneer women medical missionaries 
we note the name of Dr. Ellen F. Mitchell. At the 
age of thirty she became an army nurse in the Civil 
War, serving three years in this capacity. In 1871 
she graduated from the Women's Medical College 
in New York and in 1879, ^^ ^^^ ^g^ ^^ ^^^7 years, 
sailed as a missionary to Moulmein, Burma. 
During twenty- two years of devoted service Dr. 
Mitchell returned her salary, in great part, to the 
treasury, and devoted all that she possessed, as all 
that she was, to her service of love and healing. Her 


Founder and Principal of the Woman's Christian Medical 

College, Ludhiana, Punjab, North India 


The Battalion of Life 3;^ 

professional skill was regarded as marvelous, and 
she was affectionately styled "the little doctor*' 
among the native people. Dr. Mitchell's cherished 
desire was to establish a maternity hospital and 
training school for nurses in Moulmein. This she 
did not live to do, but in 191 7, sixteen years after 
her death, a site on a hill above the city was acquired 
by the Woman's Society represented by Dr. Mitch- 
ell, and a finely equipped maternity hospital is now 
in process of construction, to be known as the Ellen 
Mitchell Memorial Hospital and Training School 
for Nurses. Thus is rendered permanent the influ- 
ence and work of the faithful pioneer woman who 
laid down her life in the service of the Great Physi- 

These instances are given, not as exceptional, 
but as typical. Statistics and facts afford clear and 
abundant demonstration. Look up the records and 
read how, in her station at Kimpese on the Congo, 
Dr. Catherine Mabie in five months, besides devot- 
ing two or three hours a day to teaching in the 
training school, treated twelve thousand patients; 
how Dr. Benjamin in Nellore in five months treated 
four thousand, one hundred and forty-four women 
and children from every class, high and low, caste 
and outcaste, Mohammedans, heathen, and Chris- 
tians; how Miss Gerow, assisting Dr. Benjamin 
during a scourge of cholera, also helped care for 
many of the missionaries who could not be cared 
for in their stations; how the Chinese hospitals, 
during the war between Japan and China, were 
carried on by two women whose names received 
honorable mention at the highest court; how Dr. 

34 A Crusade of Compassion 

Mary Fulton for fifteen years worked and prayed 
for a women's and children's hospital in Canton and 
had not only the joy of seeing it established, but 
also a training school for nurses and a medical college 
for women, which are showing today results of high 

What shall we say more? Time fails us to multiply 
these names as we might. Women have "made good" 
as medical missionaries. Further, it is imperative 
that they so do since, as we shall see clearly in the 
course of this study, the fact remains that the male 
physician cannot reach the most needy cases of all and 
the very ones most inaccessible to other missionaries 
of either sex. 



IV, Ideals of the Battalion 

We hear again the challenge to the Battalion of 
Life, not alone in the extent, nor yet in the needs of 
the sufferers, nor solely in the character of the service 
rendered — these, yes, all of them, but supremely 
comes the call in the potency of its idealism. Al- ,- 
ready above the tumult of the war comes that clarion i| 
note. Spiritual ideals have suddenly become realized 
on a tremendous scale. The Battalion of Life with 
its twofold message is uniquely adapted for the 
delicate, difficult work of implanting ideals, for the 
millions in non-Christian lands know only a loveless 
religion — an idealless religion. The ideals of the 
Battalion of Life are meaningless unless worked out 
in action, and men and women are called upon to 
enlist in this hour in numbers that they may carry 
on, not let drop, the revived idealism of compassion. 

The Battalion of Life 25 

A twofold In its twofold message dwell the 

gospel. dominant ideals of the medical mis- 

sionary enterprise; healing for the body, the love of 
Jesus Christ for the soul. Humanitarian and phil- 
anthropic service, noble as it is, does not constitute 
religion despite the strong tendency of the spirit of 
the age to declare that it does. "Many of us can 
remember the day," says an anonymous writer in 
the Atlantic Monthly^ "when we were taught that 
we had immortal souls, to whose safeguarding 
thought and care and profound endeavor must go. 
The chief question was, 'Is it right or wrong .f** The 
chief question today is, *Is it sterilized?* Life, which 
used to be a brave flight between heaven and hell, 
has come to be a long and anxious tiptoeing between 
the microbe and the antiseptic." 

The modern position so cleverly satirized in these 
sentences defines a very real temptation which comes 
to every scientific student of life, perhaps especially 
to the physician — the temptation to a materialistic 
interpretation of all things, a letting-go of those 
things which, being inward and spiritual, can be 
only spiritually discerned. To this temptation a 
woman, temperamentally, is less open than a man, 
hence the woman medical missionary is conspicu- 
ously adapted to the twofold ministry of healing 
with its religious implications and imperatives. 

Fitness for a place in the ranks of the 
Battalion of Life demands, — besides 
thorough technical training, — invincible faith, in- 
vincible hope, invincible love; added to these, a 
spirit of obedience to orders, courage, loyalty, self- 
denial, fortitude. Who can deny that these char- 


36 A Crusade of Compassion 

acteristics belong in full measure to woman? Who 
can doubt that she will hold through depths of 
darkness and degradation to the light of her divine 

F. Review of the Battalion 

We have seen that our Battalion of Life numbers 
today about one thousand qualified medical men 
and women missionaries, not including native doc- 
tors and native helpers or nurses. Not an imposing 
number in view of the Christian host of five hundred 
and fifty million of all creeds and complexions. The 
proportion of physicians in mission fields to those in 
the United States is as one to four thousand, 
p. Precisely a century ago, in 18 19, the 

first medical missionary, John Scud- 
der, M.D., sailed for India, there to labor for six and . _ 
thirty years. His son. Dr. H. M. Scudder, founded in |1 
Arcot, in 1850, the first regularly organized medical 
mission in India, with hospital and dispensary. In 
1834 Dr. Peter Parker, a graduate of Yale Univer- 
sity, was appointed a medical missionary and sailed 
at once for Canton, China. He is often described as 
the man who "opened China at the point of his 
lancet"; with Httle exaggeration this may be said, 
for Doctor Parker in 1839 began the training of the 
native Chinese in the practice of medicine and 
surgery, a circumstance which has contributed, in 
process of time, in substantial degree, to the break- 
ing-down of the Chinese wall of prejudice and 

In the year 1849, seventy years ago, the whole 
Battalion of Life consisted of forty men; but Dr. 

The Battalion of Life 37 

Livingstone was in Africa, Dr. Hepburn in Japan, 
Drs. Lockhart, Hobson and others in China. The 
campaign was slow but steady. In 1864 Dr. David- 
son (L.M.S.) wrote from the Island of Madagascar: 
"Today I began building the hospital, the first in 
the Island. It shall stand at Analakely as a testimony 
to our humanity, our science, and our Christianity." 
In 1865 Dr. Elmslie (C.M.S.) wrote: "Today is 
memorable in the history of the Kashmir Medical 
Mission, from the fact that I opened my dispensary 
this morning. . . . My small hospital" (started on 
the doctor's verandah) "accommodates from four to 
five patients." That humble hospital in due time 
grew to be an extensive well-equipped institution, 
where in a year thirty-eight thousand, five hundred 
and seventy-three treatments were given and over 
five hundred major operations performed. 

When did women enter upon the work of medical 
missions? By whom and under what influences were 
the beginnings made? 

^ ^ ^ ^ Mention should be made, in answer- 

introductory. . . . /• T-i !• 1 

mg these questions, of an English- 
woman, Mrs. Winter, wife of a missionary in India, 
who, on her own impulse and under no auspices, 
but the call of God and humanity, began in 1863 
the labor of visitation of sick women and children 
in Delhi, together with the administration of simple 
medicine and nursing. From this beginning has come 
St. Stephen's Hospital for Women and Children in 
Delhi, with two important branches dedicated most 
appropriately to Mrs. Winter, and carrying on a 
great work among women and children. This inter- 
esting personal work cannot, however, be said to 

38 A Crusade of Compassion 


have inaugurated medical mission work for women. 
In her valuable study book Western Women in 
Eastern Lands, Helen B. Montgomery has given 
(pp. 1 24-131) a review of the early, operating causes 
which led the first regularly qualified Christian 
woman physician to enter heathendom for the prac- 
tice of her profession and in so doing to found a 
medical mission. The impulse came, as Mrs. Mont- 
gomery tells us, from the missionaries on the field, 
for the men physicians found themselves cut off 
from access to secluded native women in sickness, 
while the women missionaries were handicapped by 
ignorance of the theory and practice of medicine. 
The "missionary medical closet" was a poor sub- 
stitute for the living labor of the trained practitioner. 
In answer to appeals for "female missionaries who 
knew something of medical science," Mrs. Sarah G. i| 
Hale, of Philadelphia, organized in 1851 the "Ladies || 
Medical Missionary Society," whose object was ''to 
aid the work of foreign missions by sending out young 
women qualified as physicians to minister to the wants 
of women in heathen lands T In view of the date, 
marking a time when, as we have seen, women in 
medicine were looked upon with scorn and derision, 
as being wholly "out of their sphere," we must 
accord Mrs. Hale (who might, as editor of a ladies* 
"fashion magazine," have been expected to be on the 
popular side), the distinction of being a bold and 
valiant radical. But Mrs. Hale appealed, apparent- 
ly, without response to the cautious and decorous 
circles of Philadelphia. Then, once more, the S.O.S. 
was sounded from the foreign field, this time not in 

The Battalion of Life 39 

The initiative* in this instance came from an 
educated Hindu gentleman, Pundit Nund Kishore, 
who knew the dreadful suffering of women in child- 
birth under the malpractice of ignorant native mid- 
wives. Under his influence a class of nine native 
young women was opened at Naini Tal May i, 1869, 
a day worthy of everlasting remembrance in India. 
The thrilling news came to this country to Mrs. 
J. T. Gracey that four of these girls had success- 
fully passed government examinations and had re- 
ceived their certificates in "Anatomy, Midwifery, 
Pharmacy, and the management of minor surgical 
cases." With the tidings came the appeal for a 
thoroughly qualified missionary woman physician. 
In response to this appeal inquiries were made at 
the first of all American Women's Medical Schools, 
that in Philadelphia, for a graduate ready and fitted 
to go to India as the first enlisted woman soldier 
in the Battalion of Life. 

A candidate for this immortal honor appeared, — 
Clara Swain, M.D., of Castile, New York. She was 
sent out by the Woman's Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety of the Methodist Episcopal Church, sailing 
November third, 1869, reaching Bareilly January 2, 
1870. There she comrrienced practice the following 
morning. In less than three months she had formed 
a class of native girls in the study of medicine; three 
years later thirteen of them were granted certificates 
to practice in all ordinary diseases. The need for a 
hospital soon became urgent and the only eligible 
site was some property joining the mission premises 

* See Women s Medical Work in Foreign Landsy Mrs. J. T. Gracey. 

4© A Crusade of Compassion 


owned by a Mohammedan, an opposer of Christiani- 
ty, who Hved some forty miles away. Dr. Swain 
with four other missionaries decided to appeal to 
him for the purchase of this property. To their 
embarrassment, he said, "Take it, take it," giving 
outright an estate of forty-two acres with a large 
brick house, two fine old wells, trees and a garden, 
worth at least fifteen thousand dollars. January i, 
1874, a new hospital was completed, the first for 
Oriental women, whose cost, including the remodel- 
ing of the house as a home and dispensary, was 
about eleven thousand dollars.* That year the num- 
ber of Dr. Swain's patients reached three thousand. 
Her term of foreign service was twenty-seven years 
and every hour of every day was inspired by love 
of Christ and her fellow men. 

In 1 871 the Presbyterian women sent out their 
pioneer. Miss Sara C. Seward, niece of the Secretary 
of State, to Allahabad, India, where she died of 
cholera, in 1891. Her memorial is the beautiful 
Sara Seward Hospital, where twenty-four thousand, 
one hundred and forty-five patients were treated in 
1909. In 1873 the Congregational Board sent out 
Dr. Sarah F. Norris of New Hampshire to Bombay. 
In less than three months she had prescribed for 
four hundred patients. All homes were open to her, 
Hindu, Parsi, Mohammedan, Christian, high caste, 
low caste, rich, or poor. More than fifteen thousand 
received religious instruction and treatment annually 
at her dispensary. To the Woman's Foreign Mis- 

* For sketch of Dr. Swain's service in India see Western Women in 
Eastern Landsy by H. B. Montgomery, pp. 187-196, United Mission 
Study Series, 1910. 





(wadded for warmth) on Steps of W. F. M. S. 
Hospital, Tientsin 
(By permission of the World Outlook) 

The Battalion of Life 41 

sionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
belongs also the honor of sending out the first woman 
physician to China — Dr. Lucinda Coombs, of New 
York, appointed for Peking, in 1873; ^^^o the first 
fully trained physician to Korea, Dr. Meta Howard, 
in 1887; and the first to the Philippines, Dr. Anna 
J. Norton, in 1900. In 1879 Baptist women sent 
out as their pioneers Dr. Ellen F. Mitchell to Burma 
and Dr. Caroline H. Daniels to Swatow, China, and 
in 1 88 1 Dr. Ida Faye to Nellore, India. Dr. Anna 
S. Kugler was sent to South India in 1883 by the 
Lutheran Church. In 1886 the Presbyterians sent to 
Korea Miss Ellers, a trained nurse who lacked but 
a little of being a fully trained physician. The pio- 
neer Englishwoman was Dr. Fanny J. Butler, sent to 
India in 1880 by the Church of England Zenana 
Missionary Society. 

Such, in brief, was the initial stage of Christian 
women's medical mission work for the women of 
heathen nations. Its development, method, and 
accomplishment in various countries will hereafter 
engage our attention. 

42 A Crusade of Compassion 


"In the culture of the past, Thou, Christ, art the only mod 
ern. None felt with Thee the sympathy for man as man. They 
felt for man as Greek, as Jew, as Roman, but not as man — 
not as hopeless, friendless, landless. Thou hast gone down 
beneath all qualities, beneath beauty and virtue and fame. 
Thou hast broken the barriers of caste; Thou hast reached the 
last motive for charity — the right of hunger to bread. O Son 
of Man, Thou hast been before us. Thou hast outrun our 
Philanthropy; Thou hast anticipated our Benevolence; Thou 
hast forestalled our Charity; Thou hast modelled our Infirma- 
ries; Thou hast planned our Orphanages; Thou hast sketched 
our Asylums; Thou hast devised our Houses of Refuge; Thou 
hast projected our Homes of Reform; Thou hast vindicated 
the claims of the returned convict; Thou hast asserted the 
sacredness of infant life; Thou hast given a hand to the climb- 
ing woman; Thou hast outstripped both Peter and John in 
the race to the ancient sepulchres of humanity; at the end of 
all our progress we have met Thee." 

Rev. George Matheson^ D.D. 

"When among the mountains of Persia, in a part that no 
European had visited before, the few medicines I carried with 
me made a way for me everywhere to the hearts of the people. 

" 'What do you do this for.''' the people would ask me and 
I would reply: T do it for the love of Jesus, my Master and 

" 'You call Jesus your Master and Lord?' they would say, 
'and we think the same about Mahomet. But we have no 
Hakim in the likeness of Jesus.' 

"A Hakim in the likeness of Jesus! Was there ever before 
so beautiful a definition of the medical missionary.?" 

Isabella Bird Bishop. 





/. General Conditions. 

2. Practice among Secluded Women^ Zenana and 

J. Hospital^ Dispensary and General Practice, 

4, The Training of Native Women Physicians, 

5. Impact of IV Oman's Medical Missionary Work 

upon the Social Fabric oj India, 




'"When I find a field too hard for a man I put in a woman." 

Bishop Taylor, 

India preeminently among the countries which 
come within the scope of our present study is pos- 
sessed and governed by an alien race. For over a 
century Great Brit ain has ruled India by right of 
conquest, conquest made in the eighteenth century, 
Betore the conscience of Christendom had condemned 
the annexation of territory by military measures. 
The inhabitants of India, then, are subject to Chris- 
tian, not heathen, rule or Rajy to use the Indian 
term; they enjoy enlightened justice and internal 
peace in place of constant warfare, — the Pax Britan- 

I, General Conditions 

It would be natural, this being so, to look for 
enlightened and progressive social conditions in 
India, but it remains a land of paradox and mystery, 
learned but uneducated, inert, impassive, apathetic, 
fatalistic, in the main inveterately heathen still. 
For this condition not Great Britain, but the very 
nature of things is responsible. The British Raj, 
which grants the Christian missionary freedom and 

46 A Crusade of Compassion 

protection in his work and worship, must of neces- 
sity grant like freedom and protection to the native 
people in the practices of their ethnic religions, 
however perverse and idolatrous. 
Social character- The average Hindu of today wears 
*stics. the same fashion of raiment that he 

did in the time of Moses; he ploughs, it might almost 
be said, with the same plough, lives in the same hut, 
made of mud and thatched with straw that he"Sid 
then, he earns, as he did then, his penny a day; he 
eats the same grain, ground with the same mill- 
stones, and he Kas been hungry, as some one has 
said, for thirty centuries, it never having occurred 
to him that he had any claim to be filled. In what- 
ever caste he was born he and his sons and his sons' 
sons remain, whatever handicaps it entails. Caste, 
the inflexible division of all men and women accord- 
ing to the condition or avocation of their ancestors, 
determines everything from the cradle to the grave. 
The Hindu is patient; he is not progressive. He has 
the virtues and the vices common to subject peoples, 
and that he manifests these in striking degree is to 
be expected, for the Hindus have been a subject 
people for over a thousand years. 
_ , . Truly, India is a land of mystery 

Brahmanism. . -' ' , ^, , j r> i_ 

and paradox. Ihe learned Joranman 
will recite with fervor a noble Vedic hymn, familiar 
from time immemorial, in praise of the one and only 
God; will depart then to make his offering to a 
three-headed goddess, gaudy in red paint, or to the 
elephant-headed Ganesa, the unspeakable Linga, 
the licentious Krishna, or some other of the thirty- 
three million divinities in the Brahmanic system. 


India 47 

He combines the subtlest mystical philosophy with 
the grossest forms of idolatry and licentiousness. 
Status of All Hindu sects agree upon two 

women. points: the sanctity of the cow and 

the depravity of woman. A Brahman suspends 
reading the Veda if a woman comes in sight; her 
ear is too impure to hear what he, no matter how 
vile, may read. There are two way s by which woman 
in India can vindicate her existence; the first is by 
bearing a son. Hence child marriage, with its train 
of terrible woes. The second is by becoming "a 
hnj^ g{ the gods." This signifies entering the Tem- 
ple Service and debasement unutterable. 

Because of the unchangeable enactment of the 
code of Manu, and because of its doctrine that 
women are inherently bent upon evil, evil only, and 
that continually, Hindus, all but the lower class, 
seclude their women rigorously. The apartments 
used for this darkened and muffled existence are 
known as the zenana. The law of Manu declares: 
"A woman is not allowed to go out of the house 1 
without the consent of her husband; she may not 
laugh without a veil over her face or look out of a 
door or a window." 

Islam "^^^ ^ thousand years, until super- 

seded by the British Raj, the major 
part of India was subject, more or less solidly, to 
Moslem rule. The last Mohammedan Mughal sur- 
rendered to the British in 1857, after the fall of 
Delhi, and with his downfall and death the political 
power of Islam in India ended. But today one-third 
of all the followers of the prophet in the world are 
found in India, about sixty million. The Moslem's 


48 A Crusade of Compassion 

estimate of women is not higher than that of the 
Hindu, hence the harem, where the head of the 
house, usually polygamous, segregates and secludes 
the women of his household behind the purdah. 
There are in India forty million secluded women. 

Moslem and Hindu women alike, under native 
conditions, are destitute of even rudimentary edu- 
cation. At the present time, in India only one woman 
in a hundred can read and write. This is according 
to the unchanging temper and policy of the land. 
The lives of these secluded women are vacant and 
trivial beyond description; often vicious, always on 
a low plane, — mentally, morally, and physically they 
are subnormal. The appeal of their darkened, de- 
pressed, and suffering condition to the heart ofjl 
Christian womanhood is irresistible; affecting, in-' 
deed, is their readiness to respond to word and 
touch of sympathy and aid. 

Three great religions have gained 
sway in India. We have spoken o 
the place of women under Brahmanism and Mo- 
hammedanism, to this day in full force. The third, 
Buddhism, originating in Northern India in the 
sixth century, B. C, was driven out of the peninsula 
about 900 A.D., but is still all-powerful in Ceylon, 
where it numbers two million five hundred thou- 
sand adherents, and in Burma, where they exceed in 
number ten million. Both Ceylon and Burma belong 
to British India. The women of Burma are described 
as the most emancipated in Asia. While Buddhism 
does not seclude its women and does not support the 
pernicious system of caste, the education of women 
is neglected; social conditions are low; superstition. 


India 49 

idolatry, and dense ignorance still prevail. Above 
all things the religion of Buddha is fatalistic. KarmUy 
the inflexible law of cause and effect in human life, 
is the universal watchword of Buddhism, as Kismel, 
"destiny," is that of the follower of Islam, and Maya, 
"all is illusion," of the Hindu. 

India is the classic land of foreign missions. First 
of heathen lands to be entered by missionaries, it 
is crowded with heroic names and heroic deeds. 
Rich with memories of our own saints and martyrs, 
it is hallowed ground, potent in its appeal to our 
sympathy, our imagination, and to our loyalty to 
our dead who have died to make it free. 
India classic From the legendary visit of the 

ground for Apostle Thomas in the first century 

missions. ^^ ^j^^ present day, India has not 

been left without witness, however feeble or imper- 
fect, for the Christian religion. With the landing of 
William Carey in Calcutta, in November, 1793, the 
epoch of the modern Protestant enterprise of evangel- 
ization began. This was a century and a quarter 
ago. In 1850, medical missions were established in 
form. This was three-quarters of a century ago. In 
1870, with the entrance of Clara Swain^ M.D., upon 
her work, woman's medical missions for the women 
of India began in form. This was half a century: 

In studying the work accomplished in India proper 
in these fifty years by the several methods open to 
them, it should be borne ever in mind that our 
missionaries constantly contend with the inflexible 
barriers of the seclusion of women, of caste, of 
superstition and of dense ignorance. 

50 A Crusade of Compassion 

2, Practice among Secluded Womeriy 
Zenana and Purdah 


The earliest method of evangelizing higher caste 
Indian women was known as zenana work, meaning 
the personal religious visits of women missionaries 
to secluded women. From the conditions discovered 
in these visits came the first call for medical mission- 
ary women. 

In 1870, her first year in India, Dr. Swain was 
called to visit sixteen different zenanas; this was 
the sharp point of the entering wedge. Her service 
to the wife of the Rajah of Rajputana at Khetri 
opened the way for her to enter one of the great 
native states, there to practice her Christian ministry 
of healing for seventeen years. 

The exact counterpart of the zenana or the harem 
is unknown in western lands. The system and the 
influences going out from it are the cause of much 
of the disease common among women and children. 
It is impossible adequately to picture it, even to 
imagination, for in the minds of western women 
there is no standard of comparison. The principles 
of inferiority and seclusion ordained by the ethnic 
religions have filtered down through every grade of 
the social strata. 

What is a zenana .f* is a question often asked. 
Briefly, it is that portion of, an Indian gentleman's 
house set apart for the women. Imagination is apt 
to invest such a place with the gorgeous surround- 
ings which are usually associated with Indian wealth 
and rank. But the reality is, in most cases, dull and 
prosaic in the extreme. Instead of a mansion, think 

India 51 

of a mud building, bare and uninviting, probably 
the darkest and dirtiest part of the establishment. 
Do not imagine that the inmates are attired with 
Oriental magnificence. They are poorly and plainly^ 
clad; they sit on the floor, and the whole place is 
more suggestive of the hopeless seclusion of the 
prison than the social sunshine of the honie. In 
these dens, forty millions of the women in India are , 
kept. They have none of the joys of family life, for 
the women never gather with husband and children. 
To women in the zenana, life is without an inspiring 
purpose; it sinks to drudgery worse than that of a 

Woe betide the women when they become sick! 
Then, of all times, we should expect a little kindly 
attention to be shown them. But the suflferers are 
relegated to some damp chamber, where they are 
left alone, often with no ministries of loving hands 
to soothe and comfort their last hours. Is not the 
dull and cheerless existence of such women a living 
death? Many a zenana would remain forever closed, 
even against the woman missionary, if it were not 
for the medical mission. Where no one else can gain 
access medical women are freely admitted and much 
good work is quietly and unostentatiously accom- 
plished in the name of the Great Physician. 

A case was reported by a medical woman in North 
India which illustrates the tenacity of these social 
laws, even among those who have received an Eng- 
lish education and mixed freely with English people. 
She writes as follows: 

"The house surgeon of a government hospital, a 
clever man and a Sikh by birth and religion, came 


52 A Crusade of Compassion 

to me one morning in great distress. He said his 
daughter-in-law, a young girl of barely sixteen, was 
dangerously ill and he could do nothing for her, as 
he must not see her face nor touch her further than 
to feel her pulse. The girl was living in the house 
with the husband's parents and her father-in-law 
had never seen her face all the time she was there. 
.... No English father-in-law, however, could 
have been more distressed than this man was." 

" It must not be thought that this se- 

Hystena. ... , ° . ^ , 

elusion IS merely a species of slavery 
enforced on the women by the men. Whatever its 
origin, it is now most tenaciously kept up by the 
women themselves as a badge of respectability, even 
when the men of the household, their own prejudices 
weakened by education, would gladly call a doctor. 
As matters stand, it is true to say that, for the most 
part, the women in these zenanas may suffer or 
may die, but no man doctor will ever be called 
in to see them. Illustrations have already been 
given of some of the horrors which go on in the 
name of medical treatment at the hands of some of 
their ignorant attendants. The very confined life they 
lead predisposes the women to many kinds of ail- 
ments, and hysteria in all its forms is rife. It can 
easily be understood that the elusive nature of the 
symptoms is just what lends itself to the prevalent 
belief in evil spirits as the cause of all disease. As a 
rule, the unfortunate patient herself is as firmly 
convinced of being under Satanic influence as any 
of the household. This leaves an open door for the 
impostures of the wizard and the quack doctor and 
even if the remedies employed by the latter are less 


India $2 

violent and less injurious than those of the wizard, 
the condition of the confirmed hysteric is pitiable 
in the extreme. She generally goes from bad to 
worse, until the family is weary of her and kindness 
and misplaced pity turn to active brutality." 
Native Native treatments, for which the 

treatments. Hindus will pay vastly more than they 

would pay for Western medicine, consist of the wear- 
ing of a bit of sacred wood made into a bracelet or 
necklace, armlet or toelet; or it may be a verse from 
the Koran, or a verse copied from the sacred writings, 
placed in a container and worn round the neck as 
a charm; or it may be placed in the turban or tied 
up in the corner of the one-piece garment worn by 
men and women. Sometimes the word Allah has 
been written on a plate a number of times with 
India ink and washed off. This water is then given 
to the patient to drink for a raging fever, or an 
indolent ulcer, or a broken bone. When powders 
are given, often the inquiry is made as to whether 
the paper, too, should be eaten. 

Dr. Staley describes a typical form of treatment 
meted out to the sick in the zenanas. "I found a 
woman," she wrote, "delirious with fever after 
childbirth. She was propped up in a sitting posture 
on a filthy bed in a dark room, and beside her 
crouched two old crones, one on each side. Grasping 
her hair in their long, lean hands they occupied? 
themselves in violently shaking her head backwards! 
and forwards with all their might and main, tearing 
out handfuls of hair in their vigorous efforts. As 
one got exhausted the other relieved her. This pro- 
cedure was intended to evict the evil spirit with; 

54 A Crusade of Compassion 

which they imagined the poor creature to be pos- 
sessed. All but the back part of her hair had been 
pulled out, and, moreover, she was evidently starved, 
as she swallowed some milk with great avidity. The 
nurse who was with me fetched a litter and we had 
her carried promptly to the hospital, explaining 
carefully to the men of the family that it was merely 
to allow the poor woman to die in peace and com- 
fort, out of reach of their fiendish cruelty." 
Maternity At every turn of woman's medical 

w°^^- work the physician is confronted by 

the ever-present, hideous, one had almost said mur- 
derous, customs which have to do with maternity 
practices. Every doctor and nurse should have 
special preparation for this; indeed, it is not too 
much to say that every woman missionary should 
have such preparation. A practicing English physi- 
cian was at home from India on furlough. A well- 
known Edinburgh obstetrician inquired if he had 
seen much midwifery practice in India. He replied, 
"We had been seven years in practice before we 
were called to a confinement case, and then it was 
a cow. No department of medical practice is so 
unequally distributed among us. On the other hand, 
among many, if not all, of our women doctors, 
midwifery is the most important part of their work 
and perhaps their greatest opportunity." {Indian 
Medical Missionary Magazine.) 

J. Hospital and Dispensary Practice 

The conditions already outlined give rise to a 
vast amount of avoidable illness and create an ob- 

India ^S 

vious need for suitable hospitals. The inaccessibility 
of caste calls loudly and imperatively for the zenana 
hospital. Here women are accorded similar protec- 
tion to that to which they are accustomed, and 
gradually prepared for the new life that awaits their 
emancipation. They see here a new and strange 
religion lived before their eyes. There are now in 
India one hundred and eighty mission hospitals and 
less than four hundred dispensaries. The number of 
foreign women physicians on the field is given in 
World Statistics of Christian Missions^ latest edition, 
as one hundred and fifty-nine. 

A typical women's hospital on a 
ospi a s. small scale in Northern India may 

be sketched; it is built of sun-dried bricks, plastered 
with mud, at a cost of Rs.500.* It contains one 
large ward and four small ones, holding altogether 
fourteen beds. This building stands in a courtyard 
of its own, quite separate from the dispensary court- 
yard, which contains the operating, consulting, drug- 
store rooms and dispensary, as well as the out- 
patients' waiting room. The hospital wards have 
clean, red brick floors, freshly whitewashed walls, 
bright with illuminated texts in Hindustani and 
other dialects. The bedsteads are the native wooden 
frames, nawar^-strung^ made by industrial classes; 
sheets and bedding are of coarse weave, but of 
immaculate cleanness as is everything in the place. 
This feature is no less striking in its novelty to the 
wealthy patient than to the poor. The former have 
more jewels than the latter, but no less undisturbed 

* A rupee is about fifty cents, f Webbing. 

$6 A Crusade of Compassion 

dirt in all their belongings. The patients, on being 
brought into the hospital, are forcibly impressed 
first with this cleanness, then with the absolute 
truthfulness and the genuine love and interest shown 
them by doctor, nurses, and attendants. 
Clinical In the dispensary the nurse provides 

Christianity. gach newcomer with a metal number 

to indicate her turn. If the poorest outcaste receives 
the first number, she is the first to receive attention. 
A white-clad Bible woman gives each sufferer a few 
words of teaching regarding the compassionate 
Christ and His good news of life and light, as the 
shifting company passes to the consulting room, 
thence to the door of the drug room for medicine 
or to receive minor surgical treatment, then, passing 
out, scatters each to his or her own place. Thus the 
days go on, three hundred and sixty-five in the year, 
through dry season and rainy season, through plague 
and cholera; the doors are always open, the doctor 
is always ready to listen and to minister to the 
piteous multitude in body and in mind. 

The hospital here described is a small and humble 
beginning with a noble future before it, but there 
are many women's mission hospitals throughout 
India of larger proportions, built of stone, beautiful 
in their architecture, surrounded with the graceful, 
distinctive Indian colonnades, set amid tropical 
gardens and grassy lawns. Such a hospital has its 
separate isolation building, substantial nurses* home, 
its detached bungalow for the American staff, its 
large and small wards, all high and airy, its well- 
equipped operating, lying-in, and sterilizing rooms; 
above all, it serves its purpose in the treatment of 

i..9iSSv*»INifc- #»?.».. 

W9^*9 T/^^^-^- "^S 




(By permission of the Foreign Missions Library) 


In which most o£ our severely wounded and cases unable 
to walk are brought 

India 57 

thousands of suffering women and children each 

Here is a snap-shot of the daily round and com- 
mon task of a typical hospital in South India, as 
given by Frances Jeffery. "Separated only by a 
low wall from one of Madura's busiest thorough- 
fares, the American Mission Hospital for Women 
stands with doors ever open to the sick and dis- 
tressed women and children of that country. Dr. 
Harriet E. Parker, our representative in the field 
of action, is a frail little woman and to meet her, 
after hearing on all sides of the tremendous work 
she is doing, simply makes the romantic struggle 
seem all the more wonderful. It makes us feel the 
strength that must come from a deep-rooted faith 
in the Divine Healer. Like all doctors. Dr. Parker 
works while others sleep. 

"Gentle in her manner, she not only inspires 
confidence in her patients, but also wins their love 
and the love of her subordinates. In spite of poor 
equipment and insufficient help, she leads her as- 
sistants with such enthusiasm and unselfishness 
that they serve her loyally and efficiently. Until 
recently, when Dr. Scott, from America, and Miss 
Ruth Heath, a trained nurse from England, came 
to aid Dr. Parker, she has carried her burdens with 
only the help of the Indian nurses and compounders. 

"Half an hour, an hour even, before the dispen- 
sary doors are opened to the eager people outside, 
the doctor makes her morning visit to the wards. 
From cot to cot she goes, giving kindly counsel as 
well as medical advice to the patients: to the silk 
weaver's wife who must have an operation and 

58 A Crusade of Compassion 

thinks it very hard that only two from the large 
number of friends and relatives who escorted her 
hither may remain; to the low-caste girl who nearly 
went blind from ^country sore eyes'; and to the 
young Brahman woman whose interest in the Bible 
brought her in touch with the woman who knew 
where she might find relief for her pain. 

"When the doors are opened at eight o'clock the 
doctor is ready to receive her visitors, a variegated 
assembly of women and children, some of whom 
have ridden or walked many a weary mile to consult 
the Doctor-lady. There are usually so many waiting 
to see her that numbers are given out by one of the 
nurses, so that all may go in their turn. Each patient 
receives from the Doctor some prescription which 
is forwarded to the drug room, and there, later, the j 
women go to reach out their hands for the much- 
coveted medicine. As few of the woman-kind of 
India are able to read, the bottles are decorated with 
pieces of paper so notched as to show the number 
and size of the doses to be taken. There is an- 
other worker in the waiting-room, besides the 
nurses and attendants, the Bible woman, who takes 
this opportunity to talk to the waiting women of 
the Christ and of the religion that brings happiness 
to its believers." 

Dr. Parker's work is not confined to the hospital. 
She has many calls to go into the homes of the na- 
tive women in and about Madura. The Hindu 
woman still resents the entrance of a man doctor 
into her home for attendance in illness, and, as Dr. 
Parker has been until recently the only woman 
physician in Madura, and indeed in the whole dis- 

India 59 

trict embraced by the Madura Mission, her ability 
is constantly being pressed into service. In this 
country a doctor would think it more than sufficient 
to supervise a hospital, looking after the training 
of the nurses and compounders, without doing any 
service outside of the hospital. And well might Dr. 
Parker, since in one ward of the hospital alone, the 
obstetrical ward, there were one hundred and seventy- 
six cases during this last year, many of them 
neglected and desperate cases. All doctors know 
what this means as to anxiety, hours of hard work, 
skill, and every resource of instruments and delicate 

Her hospital work is a night and day task, and 
yet she is never too busy or too tired to answer a 
call of distress and emergency, even if it means a 
thirty-mile Jutka ride without food and without 

Usually the missionary in charge of the station, 
to which her trip leads her, facilitates her work by 
sending out word of her arrival through the village 
catechists, thus having all in readiness for her 
coming. Perhaps through some woman who has been 
cured in her hospital, her fame has spread before 
her and the lame and the diseased come for miles 
to the village appointed for her visit, to be examined 
and to receive the healing medicine. Often there are 
cases of prolonged or desperate character and Dr. 
Parker usually prevails upon these to return with 
her to the hospital where, under the special care 
there given, they may recover. 

What an opening this makes for Christianity! 

During a recent year there were one thousand and 

6o A Crusade of Compassion 

eighty-one in-patients and thirteen thousand seven 
hundred and forty-nine out-patients; total treat- 
ments forty-seven thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-three. Of this number one hundred and 
ninety-three were maternity cases, requiring ninety- 
three obstetrical operations. Total operations one 
thousand four hundred and seven. 

Miss Ruth C. Heath, trained nurse, writes: "I 
confess I am a little tired; it is over ten weeks since 
I had one whole night in my bed! and the worst 
of it is Dr. Parker is tired, too; but we both keep 
at it and daily strength is always given to meet the 
day's work. Apart from my hospital work I find 
in adding up my *out calls' for this year (191 6) 
that they number nine hundred and seventy-seven. 
This in itself means quite a fair amount of time and 

^. . An additional measure for providing 

medical aid is that of branch dispen- 
saries. Unfortunately, the hospital staff is not us- 
ually large enough to permit of doing this work. 
Every hospital should have two or more such branch- 
es with a sufficient staff to make an alternating 
service possible. In this way what is done at the 
centre may be, in a measure, duplicated, and many 
sufferers may be helped who are too far away, too 
indifferent, or too fatalistic to come to the hospital. 
They frequently ask for medicine in the form of 
powders, fearing that the liquid used in the mixture 
may be water, drinking which would cause them to 
lose caste or, perhaps, unconsciously coerce them 
to become Christians and hence outcasts. In this 
branch work the practical difficulty lies in being 


India 6i 

unable to see the patients often enough to do them 
any good. If no visible result occurs within a few 
hours, they immediately seek a new doctor. The 
astonishingly common sore eyes need constant atten- 
tion and cleanliness, instead of the unwashed gar- 
ment so convenient to apply and so contaminating. 
If in the case of a child the application of the lotion 
causes pain, the parents will not use it, for the one 
unpardonable sin is to allow infants to cry. When 
they cry the remedy is the convenient opium which 
is freely used throughout the country. 

According to the last available statistics there 
were over four million„trea,tments given during the 
last year. Hardly one of these patients left these 
hospitals and dispensaries without receiving a 
spiritual message, without seeing Christianity thus 
commend itselfTn blessing and power to the people 
of the land. Not one of them but could truthfully 
say, "We have no such thing in our religion." Among 
the thinking ones would also start the query, "Why 
this difference.'*" and the interrogation point would 
trace a path from Vishnu to Christ. 
^ .^ - The strongest barrier against sani- 

tation and cleanlmess m India is the 
inflexible combination of ignorance and superstition. 

The pious Hindu believes that the Ganges river 
rises from the nail of the large toe of Vishnu's left 
foot, then reissues from the moon and that the 
nymphs of heaven, by sporting in the water, have 
imparted to it life-giving power. He believes that 
any man who dies on the banks of that river is 
sure of Heaven, and that the sacred stream, desired, 
seen, touched, bathed in, sanctifies all being. It is 

62 A Crusade of Compassion 

impossible that such a faith can long survive the 
teaching of modern astronomy and geography, phy- 
siology and hygiene. Chemistry and bacteriology 
are making rubbish of a good deal of hoary and 
venerated idolatry. The evangel has many voices, v? 
science is one of them. f ( 

India has always been noted for its neglect not 
only of every hygienic precaution, but, in certain 
respects, of the simple decencies of living. Fresh air 
is more feared than snakes; squalor defies descrip^ 
tion. Missions, of course, have had little to do offi- 
cially with the establishment and enforcement of 
modern sanitary regulations. The British Govern- 
ment is discharging this gigantic task as far and as 
fast as the serious difficulties allow. Missionaries, 
however, have much to do in preparing the people 
to welcome and respond to the efforts of the Govern- 1 
ment in this direction. It is the ignorant and bigoted^ 
children of superstition, the thronging pilgrims,' 
the fanatical devotees, the slaves of custom, the 
men and women whose lives are stagnant and whose 
outlook has no gleam of better things, who are 
intractable and immovable. 

When a deadly visitation, like the plague, appears 
in the midst of the people, they fly with offerings to 
their gods, disregarding the matter-of-fact adminis- 
trator who endeavors to indoctrinate them with the 
laws of hygiene, and offers them disinfectants and 
other preventives. "It is the will of the gods," or 
"What is written on our foreheads will come to pass,' 
is the response. To face and fight the trouble ap- 
pears to the natives impious; all that they care to 
do is to petition their gods to stay the pest destroy- 

India 6^ 

ing them. Sentiments like these stand against sani- 
tation, the people rejecting the saving hand, and, 
worse still, turning at times fiercely on their rescuers. 

Their characteristic fatalism is well illustrated by 
the following conversation between an official and 
a Mohammedan: 

Question: What is the death rate per thousand 
in your principal city? 

Answer: It is the will of Allah that all should 
die. Some die young, some old. 

Question: What is the annual number of births .f* 

Answer: We do not know. God alone can 

Question: Are the supplies of drinking water 
sufficient and of good quality? 

Answer: From the remotest time no one has ever 
died of thirst. 

Question: General remarks on the hygienic con- 
ditions in your city. 

Answer: Since Allah sent us Mohammed, His 
Prophet, to purge the world by fire and sword, 
there has been a vast improvement, but there still 
remains much to do. Everywhere is opportunity to 
help and reform, and now, my lamb of the West, 
cease your questioning which can do no good, either 
to you or to any one else. Man should not bother 
himself about matters which concern only God. 
Salem Aleikum. 

Epidemics Little wonder that in India epidemics 

of plague and cholera are so frequent 
as to attract scant notice in the outside world. The 
Battalion of Life is hard at work fighting where it , 
can the conditions which inevitably breed disease, ) 


64 A Crusade of Compassion 

but it is slow work contending against the prejudices 
of forty centuries. 

But there are signs of cheer. "Severe epidemics 
are often the cause of apostasies among weak Chris- 
tians. But fresh from passing through a widespread 
outbreak of cholera during the last rains," so says 
a medical missionary, "I can testify to the way in 
which efficient medical aid to our people in their 
distress and danger may make what might have 
been an occasion of falling a very sacrament of 
grace, drawing out all that was best in the simple, 
child-like faith which some are apt to despise in 
these, Christ^s little ones." 

Writing of plague conditions at Ahmednagar, 
Dr. Ruth Hume describes the invincible unwilling- 
ness of the people to submit to inoculation. "It is 
passing strange," she says, "to see how people refuse 
and put off and evade inoculation, which is given 
them absolutely freely by the Government. ... I 
have not done as many as some of the other inocu- 
lators, only between twenty-seven hundred and 
twenty-eight hundred thus far. But I have had one 
privilege which some of the others lack, for I am 
not only a doctor but a woman, so I was asked to 
go to selected places in the city to which the purdah 
Mohammedan women could conveniently come. . . 
Today, October tenth, the day's plague figures are 
one thousand, fifty-five cases and seven hundred and 
ten deaths. And now cholera can be added to our 
almost necessary preventive treatments here. . . . 
Our nurses and staff have done splendidly handling 
the extra work made by plague patients, orphan 
babies, and inoculation." 

India 65 

The village Aside from home visiting the medical 

cl""c. missionary has an important task in 

her regular touring through outlying villages. When 1 
her coming is expected the Christian preacher or ^ 
teacher of each village gathers in the school house 
or sometimes under a tree by the wayside those who 
are sick and suffering. The doctor with her attend- 
ant nurse drives up, her medicine chest with her, 
and the work proceeds swiftly but systematically, 
fifty or sixty being cared for at each place visited, 
and at each the good seed of the Word being sown. 
Such a day's work may mean for the doctor fourteen 
hours of intense application, forty-six miles of travel, 
and three hundred patients treated. 

4. Training Schools for Native Nurses 
and Physicians 

Schoorfor There stands today in Guntur in 

^^^^^ Madras Presidency a large, well- 

equipped Lutheran hospital for women. It was 
formally opened for patients in 1898. As one enters 
the precincts of the hospital there is seen, at the 
right of the driveway, a picturesque, cloistered, 
two-story edifice, built of rough stone and brick. 
This is the nurses' home and training school for 
native women, model and type of what every medi- 
cal mission in India requires. The first class of 
nurses in this school was graduated in 1901. Diplo- 
mas are granted in sick-nursing, compounding, and 
midwifery and those who have received them are 
proving themselves a power for good. Of prime 
importance for India is the need for trained mid- 

66 A Crusade of Compassion 


wives, the native date, when untrained, proving 
themselves a menace to life by their cruel super- 
stitions and ignorant malpractices. The unnecessary 
sacrifice of infant and mother life by this means is 
nothing less than appalling. Any fascination which 
Indian religious systems may have for Western 
minds disappears when the outworking of them is 
seen in the supreme crisis of maternity. The little 
girl who, at the age of twelve, must undergo the 
ordeal of childbirth, should at least have the chance 
for her life which is given by intelligent nursing. 

Great as is the need for trained native nurses, the 
need for trained native women doctors is greater. 
Indeed, here is the main point on which the future 
of the enterprise which we are studying rests. Ob- 
viously, it is impossible for foreign women fully to 
supply the needs of Indians suffering and neglected 
millions. Nor would it be according to the counsels 
of wisdom that this should be attempted. As rapidly 
as possible the Indian people should come to their 
own aid, should learn to stand on their own feet, 
should emerge from the dependent and helpless 
class. It is the purpose of our societies to help them 
to help themselves. 

A glance at the preceding chapter will show us 
that under the heading Review of the Battalion, 
we found that the first strong, definite call for women 
medical missionaries had its origin in the forma- 
tion, at the instance of a Hindu gentleman, of a 
class of native girls to study medicine. This was at 
Naini Tal, in May, 1869. Let it be kept in mind, 
then, that India first lifted her own voice for her 
own release from the cruel bonds which bound her. 

India 67 

Let us firmly believe that the seed of self-help, 
small and weak though it was, shall, in the end, 
bring forth abundant fruit after its kind. 
Schools of There exist in India at the present 

medicine. time four important schools of medi- 

cine for women: one at Agra, one at Delhi, one at 
Ludhiana, a fourth in Vellore. The two first named 
are in the Northwest Provinces; Ludhiana in the 
Punjab, North India; Vellore in Madras Presidency, 
South India. The Agra Medical School belongs to 
the "Dufferin Scheme," a "National Association 
for supplying Female Medical aid to the Women of 
India," founded at the instance of Queen Victoria 
in 1886. While it is under government control, it 
is interesting to know that the Christian community 
has supplied most of the female candidates for the 
degree of sub-assistant surgeon in this school and 
that regular Bible classes are carried on among 
them. Out of sixty female students at a given time 
at Agra fifty were Christian girls. In 1898, the Lady 
Dufferin Association reported two hundred and 
forty female students under its charge in different 
medical schools and colleges. Wholly admirable as 
is this government-controlled enterprise, particular 
study of it, as of the Lady Hardinge school at Delhi, 
does not come within our present brief survey, 
otherwise than by sympathetic recognition. 

There are but two expressly missionary schools 
of medicine for women in India, those at Ludhiana 
and at Vellore. These will be considered in Chapter 


68 A Crusade of Compassion 

5. Impact of Woman's Medical Missionary 
. Work upon the Social Fabric of India 

"The one great curse of our country is the un- 
educated mother and the illiterate wife," said an 
Indian lady of distinction in a public meeting at 
Bombay; "We are left to rot and waste in the 
darkness of ignorance and narrow prejudice. Lead 
us out from this *Black Hole* and restore us to free 
air and the light of knowledge." 

^^. , The women of Christian America 

Object lessons. , 1 . , . 

can -respond to this appeal m no 

more effective way than by sending fresh recruits 
to the body of medical missionaries ministering to 
the women thus described. Too ignorant to read of 
better ways, object lessons are the only method 
which pierces into the darkened mind and stimulates 
the native women to imitation. They see funda- 
mentals without knowing it. They see the windows { 
open, which in itself is a novelty; they see heads! 
uncovered, which is never dreamed of at home in ^ 
sickness or at night; they see even babies taking 
the fresh air cure and no demons carrying them off; 
they see ulcers, not little ones, but ample ones cover- 
ing the whole foot or the leg, gradually changing 
to healthy tissue and no hot iron has been applied, 
nor filthy cow-dung poultice used; they see loving, 
tender, patient service such as they have never 
received in their lives before. In the very hospital 
building they see a memorial to some sainted woman, 
when woman, according to the teaching of their 
priests and their sacred books, has been held forever 
accursed. They see happy, healthy children coming 

India 69 

out of suffering, weakness, and misery; they see 
even girls loved and cared for; they see those of 
their own country trained to be alert, active, effect- 
ive in the same loving service, and they marvel. 

"All 1 learn here," said a Mohammedan woman ^^ 
in a missionary hospital, "is of love. We hear no , 
mention of love in our religion." Another, the wife \ 
of a highly educated Mohammedan gentleman, 
herself an eloquent testimony of what liberated 
womanhood may be in India, and a frequent visitor 
to a missionary hospital, said, "I never come here 
that I don't go away feeling rebuked that you do 
so much for our people and we do nothing." A 
prominent Mohammedan testifies: "It is these med- 
ical missionaries who are winning the hearts of our 
people. We, too, must build hospitals and care for 
the sick and the dying if we wish to keep our religion 
alive." With open eyes seeing all these things their 
hearts are made tender, very much as they were in 
the days of old when the Christ gave us the example, 
and as of old they are amazed. 

A missionary in South India tells of an old woman 
who bitterly opposed the mission and tried to dis- 
suade her relatives from attending the dispensary. 
Later she was attacked by a painful carbuncle on 
her knee. At last, receiving no help at home, she 
hobbled in pain to the mission hospital. Her expe- 
rience at the hospital transformed her into a loyal 
friend of the mission, and day by day she may be 
heard exhorting the patients to trust the mission 
workers. "I was against them once," she tells them, 
"but now that I know what love means, they are 
my parents and I am their child. Caste? What is 

yo A Crusade of Compassion 

caste? I believe in the goodness they show, that is 
their caste." 

Hospital "What's the matter with you?" says 

conversation. bed No. I, contentedly. "My hus- 
band became angry with me, because the meal 
wasn't ready when he came home and he cut my 
face. The Doctor Miss Sahib has mended me, she 
has done what my own mother would not do." 
Said another in reply to the question, "The cow 
horned my arm, but until I got pneumonia I couldn't 
stop milking or making bread for the father of my 
children, even if it was broken. The hospital is my 
Mabap (mother- father)." 

"What care would you get at home?" chimed in 
another who had been burning up with fever. "Oh! 
I would be out in the deserted part of the woman's 
quarters. It would be a wonderful thing if any one 
would pass me a cup of water," she replied. From 
another bed, a young wife of sixteen spoke of having 
been ill with abscesses. "One broiling day," she 
said, "I had fainted with thirst. The midwives had 
neglected me all through the night and, thinking 
I was dying, they threw me from the cord bed to 
the floor and dragged me down the steep stone 
staircase to the lowest floor where I was lying, next 
to the evil-smelling dust bin, ready for removal by 
the carriers of the dead, when the Doctor Miss 
Sahib found me and brought me here. She is my 
mother and I am her child." 
Influences The best part of it is that this deeper 

spiritual. success does not depend upon the 

cure of the physical ills. Let us listen to this elo- 
quent incident: 

India 71 

"The lady doctor* was out in camp some twelve 
miles from her station in South India. All day long 
a stream of suffering women and children sought 
her at the door of her tent and all day long they 
received her skilled and loving attention. In the 
evening, when the sun was setting, and she had 
seen the last of her patients for the day, she began 
to pack up her gloves and instruments preparatory 
to returning home in the cool of the night. Looking 
up she saw four men carrying a burden toward her 
little tent and waited to see what new claim on her 
attention this might be. Presently, they laid at her 
feet an outcaste man, the son of one of the bearers, 
in the grip of the cholera. What was she to do? I 
have no need to tell you what she did; love dictated 
that, and you have already seen what happened. 
Putting away all thought of returning home, she 
turned to this poor outcaste stranger to see if by 
any means she might save his life. All night long 
the woman doctor fought death in an unequal com- 
bat. All night long there was no ministry so repulsive 
but love held it. And all night long there was no 
service so lowly that love did not stoop to it. In the 
dawn he died, and as the morning broadened into 
sunrise the respectable Hindoos of the village, the 
men whose women and children she had been seeking 
to comfort and to heal during the whole of the 
preceding day, came out from their homes, and saw 
what had taken place. They spurned the doctor, 
because, having touched their women folk she had 

* Contributed by the Rev. W. Goudie to L.M.S. Chronicley 
February, 1914. See also Yarns on Heroes oj India ^ p. 69. 

72 A Crusade of Compassion 


also touched the filthy body of an outcaste man. 
They declared that never again should she be wel- 
comed in their village or allowed to touch their 
people. Even the father of the dead man lifted up 
the corpse of his son and carried it away without 
so much as saying Thank you.* The woman doctor 
was left to make her way home over twelve miles 
of roadless country with weary limbs and aching 
head and a heart deeply wounded, for she said, T 
thought to have opened the door of usefulness, but 
I seemed to close one and to have wasted my night's 

"But in six months the family of the dead man, 
the man whom she had sought to cure, were at the 
feet of her brother the missionary, pleading to be 
taken under his care and taught with a view to 
entering the Christian Church. 

"'Why have you come?' said he, not unnaturally; 
to which they replied, *We have come because v/e 
have seen what love can do. We never knew till 
then what love was. You thought that we did not 
care, because we did not speak, but our hearts were 
too full for speech. We want to belong to you.* 

"The result was that in a short time the missionary 
in charge of the station was able to baptize a thou- 
sand people in that village and a little later could 
report that that new congregation had provided 
twelve Christian workers, evangelists, teachers and 
Bible women." 



(By permission of the Woman's Union Missionary Society) 




Introductory: Comparison of China with India, 
2, Religion and Life, 
J. The Women of China, 

4, How Christianity Brings Healing, 

5. Three Life-saving Stations, 




"Send us more missionaries, especially doctors." 

Li Hung Chang. 

7 China is the land of possibilities, undeveloped, 
but unbounded. She is a land of mighty reserve 
power, but this power, like that of her physical 
resources, her enormous supply of mineral deposits, 
has remained dormant. She is a sleeping, but not 
a dead giant. Napoleon at St. Helena said, "When 
China is moved it will change the face of the globe." 

VI /. Comparison of China with India 

A superficial comparison of the social state of 
China with that of India might suggest a close 
parallel. Both have dense and enormous popula- 
tions. In both countries poverty reaches the lowest 
depth. Both are deeply tainted with conditions 
fatal to human health and life, conditions induced 
by age-long ignorance of public and private cleanli- 
ness and hygiene, hence both are cursed with lepro- 
sy, cholera, bubonic plague, loathsome diseases of 
the skin and eyes. In both the masses of the popula- 
tion are illiterate. Both are, in religion, idolatrous 
and priest-ridden. In both, women are secluded and 
oppressed as inferiors, miserably handicapped in the 
race of life. Alike in India and China the native 

76 A Crusade of Compassion 

treatment of disease is desperately evil, being con- 
trolled by gross superstition and ignorance. 

The resemblance, obvious, but going not at all 
below the surface, fades the moment we recognize 
certain fundamental facts. While India shows the 
enervation of a tropical land, China has the energy 
of a colder climate, and does not bear the marks of a 
subject nation. The Chinese retain an independence, 
firmness of fibre, a vigor and a native intelligence in 
strong contrast to the languid apathy of an ex- 
hausted people like the Hindus. The seclusion and 
oppression of women in China does not rest upon 
the rock-foundation of an unchangeable religiou 
code; it is a custom and a custom which has alway 
been in some degree flexible. The women of Chin 
though counted inferior, are by no means decaden 
or passive. Again, India staggers painfully alon 
the path of progress under her paralyzing burden 
of caste. The Chinese have no similar handicap; 
they are the most democratic of people. The only 
aristocracy is that of learning. 

Again, idolatry, while prevalent in China, is less 
gross, unclean, and multiform than in India and is 
destitute of the corruption of lascivious rites such 
as prevail in goddess-worship in certain Hindu sects, 
or of customs akin to that of the dedication of young 
girls to the service of the Temple. 

A strong point of promise for China's future is 
found in her native inventive intelligence in the 
past. China invented, long centuries ago, gun- 
powder, block-printing, banknotes, porcelain, the 
compass and many other devices commonly sup- 
posed to have originated in Western civilization. 

China 77 

Civil engineers tell us that in less than fifty years, 
after keen young Chinamen have had access to 
technical schools of grade like our own, there will 
be no place in the engineering work of the Far East 
for the white expert. Rapidly energetic Chinese 
business men are getting into their own hands bank- 
ing, coastwise navigation, trade and commerce, 
hitherto in the hands of foreigners. China is sitting 
up in bed and rubbing her eyes; when she is fully 
awake all signs point to her as a future bearer of 
civilization. "But," as a clever missionary has said, 
"it is easier to wake up than to get up." 
"The best stuff In spite of the Chinese wall of inher- 
inAsia." \^q(j[ Conservatism, in spite of the 

conditions of human life which have given rise to the 
saying, "You can smell China as you approach it a 
hundred miles out to sea," there is promise of the 
dawn of a new day for China which we do not find 
in India. Isabella Bird Bishop declared, "After eight 
and a half years of journeyings among Asiatic peo- 
ples, I say unhesitatingly that the raw material out 
of which the Holy Ghost fashions the Chinese con- 
vert and oftentimes the Chinese martyr is the best 
stuff in Asia." 

2, Religion and Life 

We who enjoy the privileges of enlightened West- 
ern civilization know that it owes its commanding 
superiority to the commanding superiority of the 
religion which has imparted to it its noblest char- 
acteristics. While these characteristics are not in 
full control we may yet say it is Christian civiliza- 

7© A Crusade of Compassion 

Chinese civilization, as it has been in the past, 
is not less the product, in great measure, of its 
religion. What, then, is the religion of China? 
Briefly, there are here found three fountain heads 
of so-called religion and from no one of them issues 
a stream of living water. First, we have the teach- 
ings of Confucius, — a philosopher of the sixth 
century B.C., — moral but sterile. Second, we have 
a corrupt and idolatrous form of Buddhism, a re- 
ligion which at best knew no God and no hope for 
the future life beyond the transmigration of souls 
and ultimate annihilation. Third is Taoism which 
holds up for worship a host of gods, genii, heroes, 
demons, natural forces, a grotesque medley of crude 
and tawdry superstitions. Du Bose says, "There is 
little hope for China politically, morally or religiously 
until Taoism is swept from the face of the land. It 
is evil and only evil." 

But underlying these three cults, sustaining and 
transcending them, is the worship of ancestors, "the 
Gibraltar of Chinese belief." This is the major 
operating influence in the common round of life. 
Religions of The prevailing motive of religion in 

^^®^* China, in whatever form, is fear, not 

love. Fear in religion inevitably creates superstition. 
A religion of fear is closely connected with cruelty in 
the treatment of human suflFering. Hence the re- 
ligion of China brings us swiftly to the current con- 
ceptions of human disease, its causes and its cure. 

Man is "incurably religious," and he becomes like 
that which he worships. China's religion has satu- 
rated her people with fear. Where there is fear, 
there is no hope, there is no faith, there can be no 


China 79 

love. Such thoughts are not in all their imagina- 
tions! What can be more unreasonable than one 
who is possessed by fear, whether it be an animal 
or a man? A frightened child cannot be reasoned 
with; he can but tremble despite all reason. Every 
doctor is familiar with the hopelessness of the pa- 
tient who is full of fear; he knows that the fear is 
almost worse than the disease. The untaught adults 
of China have child minds, poisoned by fear. The 
source of this fear is a corrupt priesthood whose 
business is to promote fear. Without fear their 
coffers would be empty, without ignorance their 
power would cease. When sickness comes, with no 
knowledge of a God of Love, or of His abundant 
Life, this normal condition becomes exaggerated. 
Dread of Fear becomes like a terrible con- 

demons, tagion; the demons are angry, they 

must be propitiated lest a worse thing befall; the 
priest directs the curative measures, extending his 
jurisdiction even beyond the grave. Men do not 
reason when they are driven by fear and China is 
obsessed by it. The people firmly believe in the 
existence of demons of whom they are terribly 
afraid. To their minds hideous devils infest dark 
corners and lie in wait to injure passers-by often 
for no cause whatever. 

"This dread of the spirits,'* says Dr. Dennis 
in Christian Missions and Social Progress ^ "over- 
shadows the whole life of the Chinese. It gives to 
Geomancy its paralyzing influence, since it is dan- 
igerous to disturb the natural configuration of the 
earth, lest it excite the fatal animosity of spirits 
of evil. Grading for a railway becomes presumptu- 

8o A Crusade of Compassion 

ous trifling with unseen foes; mining for coal, iron, 
copper, silver and other metals is simply a blasphe- 
mous assault upon strongholds of demons. At every 
turn the Chinese has to reckon with impending 
calamity."* In Chinese Characteristics, page 104, 
the author expresses the conviction that the true 
root of the Chinese practice of filial piety is a 
mixture of fear and self-love, two of the most 
powerful motives which can act on the human soul. 
The spirits must be worshipped on account of 
the power which they have for evil. Dr. Henry 
says, "The people are chained to the dead. They 
cannot move or act without encountering prosper- 
ous or adverse influences excited by spirits of the 
dead. They are kept all their lifetime in fear, not 
of death, but of the dead." 

Now let us see what these ancient religions of 
fear have, in the process of time, produced for the 
physical life of the race. 

Bird's-eye Dr. Martin Edwards on his return 

^^w« from a visit to ChinU in the interest of 

a scheme for establishing a Harvard Medical School 
at some center in that land issued a report in which 
he sought to make clear the medical needs of China. 
He said: "Imagine if you will our country of ninety 
millions of people, with its splendid institutions for 
the preserving and betterment of public health. 

* Geomancy is the belief held by the Chinese in relation to the 
spirits or genii that rule over winds and waters, especially running 
streams and subterranean waters. This doctrine is universal and in- 
veterate among the Chinese, and, in great measure, prompts their 
hostility to railroads and telegraphs, since they believe that such struc- 
tures anger the spirits of the air and waters and, consequently, cause 
floods and typhoons. 

The Uplift of China, p. 13. 

China 8i 

Now, in order to get a real conception of what China 
is, we are going to begin a process of elimination. 
First, we will take out of this country of ours all 
the hospitals save one hundred and sixty, that being 
the number there are in all China. Next, take away 
every infants* hospital and every hospital that is 
given to taking care of the mother in her hour of 
need. Next, we must close the greater number of 
the dispensaries for our poorer people and leave 
them without care. Let us go further and dismiss 
from every city the Boards of Health. The sewers, 
then, of each city must be filled up and all the 
various institutions that are acting to preserve good, 
healthful conditions for the individual and the city 
must close their doors. Now, it seems as though 
that is enough to take away from this country of 
ours, but we will have to do more yet. All our med- 
ical schools save one, and that established three 
years ago, must disappear. We will go still further 
and take away from our ninety millions of people 
all the scientific knowledge of how disease is caused 
and how it is transmitted. Then, take this forlorn 
country and pack it full of tuberculosis, put it in 
every home. Leave no city without smallpox. Scat- 
ter everywhere the other countless diseases which 
we have here in greater or less extent. Then place 
on the southeastern area bubonic plague. See that 
no state of the Atlantic Coast is free from the 
devastation of cholera. Then all over this stricken 
country spread the loathsome leprosy, and when all 
that is done, summon just four times as many people, 
all of whom desire as much as we to be healthy and 
strong, and whose hearts, strangely enough, love and 

82 A Crusade of Compassion 

suffer and break even as ours, and then say: Here's 
where you must live, — and that is China." 

As we view the appalling extent of human suffer- 
ing indicated by Dr. Edwards's sketch,* the question 
of Chinese remedial measures, the native practices 
of medicine and surgery, naturally confronts us. 
Here we pause, unwilling to enter far into a chamber 
of horrors which can only inspire us with repulsion 
and turn sympathy into despair. Moreover, the use 
of violence and torture to drive out supposed demons, 
of witches* brew, of snakes' skin, cofiin nails and 
the like, of opium ever and always, belongs to a phase 
of development in China doomed to pass away in 
the light of the better day now dawning. We will 
pass over, then, details of native practice at this 
point. When we look into the medical work of 
Christian missionaries we shall be sufficiently con- 
vinced that ignorance and superstition, in China as 
in India, have done their worst, and that the woes 
of the women and children cry aloud piercingly 
for relief. 

J. The Women of China 

. k/ In the Chinese scheme of things the 
^ universe is divided between Yangy 
good, and Yiny evil or darkness. Demons are Yin; 
woman is Yin.-\ In the curious and complex hiero- 
glyphics which in the Chinese system take the place 
of our alphabet, three women together stand for 

* This report of Dr. Edwards was published in Th^ Work of the Medical 
Missionary i S. V. M., 1909. Since then the number of hospitals and 
schools of medicine has been increased. 

t See The Changing Chinese^ Edward A. Ross, p. 187. 

China 83 

"intrigue." Distinctly, woman is an inferior being, 
a necessary evil, to be diligently kept in her place. 
One of the sacred sayings of Confucius runs as 
follows: "Women are as different from men as 
earth is from heaven. Women, indeed, are human 
beings, but they are of a lower state than men and 
can never attain to full equality with them. The aim 
of female education, therefore, is perfect submission, 
not cultivation and development of the mind." 

A logical development of twenty-six centuries of 
Confucianism is a civilization in which only one 
woman in a thousand can read. 

. A very ancient book exists in China 

called "Rules for Women." It con- 
sists of seven chapters. The subjects of these chap- 
ters, as given below, fairly illustrate the place of 
women in China's social scheme. 

1. The state of subjection and weakness in 
which women are born. 

2. The duties of a woman when under the 
power of a husband. 

3. The unlimited respect due to a husband, 
and constant self-examination and restraint. 

4. The qualities which render a female lova- 
ble, divided into those relating to her virtue, 
her conversation, her dress and occupations. 

5. The lasting attachment due from a wife 
to a husband. 

6. The obedience due to a husband and to 
his parents. 

7. The cordial relations to be maintained 
with her husband's brothers and sisters. 


84 A Crusade of Compassion 

. It is wholly logical in these views 

of the subordination of women that 
seclusion goes with them. Why should any one care 
to converse with a woman? At best she cannot be 
trusted. A student of things Chinese writes of being 
entertained for three days in the home of a wealthy 
silk merchant in an inland city and during that 
time never once catching a glimpse of any of the 
ladies of the household. There must have been a 
number of them, for the Chinaman of means is 
both polygamous and patriarchal. Several wives are 
in order, and when the sons marry they bring their 
wives home to the paternal roof. Idle and vacant 
to a degree is life in the women's apartments, into 
which only a woman can gain access. It is a life 
wholly destitute of large, impersonal interests; its 
effects are mental and moral emptiness. 

^The fashion of small feet is supposed 
to have passed away by the edict of 
the late Empress Dowager. But age-long customs 
are not changed immediately, even by edict. People 
are so much accustomed to this practice that most 
men would refuse to wed a woman whose feet are 
of the natural size. Mothers who are careless in 
every point relative to their daughters bestow ex- 
treme diligence in bandaging and guarding against 
every attempt which the child may make to relieve 
herself from the painful pressure. Somehow the vast 
importance of the condition is impressed upon the 
child and, when this occurs, the martydom necessary 
for attaining it is cheerfully endured. 

A Chinese saying tells us that "for every pair of 
bound feet there has been a whole tubful of tears" 

China 85 

and they add that one girl out of ten dies of foot- 
binding or its after effects. 

In searching for the origin of the custom, it is 
found that the Chinese themselves are not certain 
what gave rise to it. "Who would have thought it 
possible fifteen years ago that not only would the 
Manchu Empress Dowager have issued an edict 
upon the subject, but even Chinese Viceroys would 
take up the matter with enthusiasm? Credit is 
largely due to Mrs. Archibald Little for having 
patiently, persistently, intelligently and intelligibly 
placed the advantages and disadvantages, mundane 
and spiritual, in a sympathetic way before the liter- 
ary classes; and, lo and behold, popular prejudice 
collapses at once. Probably foot-binding will go on 
fitfully and locally for another hundred years, but 
its back is broken." 

It is within bounds to say that even in this late 
day of progress there are seventy million women 
tottering about in China on deformed and tortured 

Few realize the extent of the use of 

opium and its hold upon all ages. 
Dr. McCartney of Chung King says that women 
are addicted to smoking opium, not so much as men, 
but from what can be learned from patients in the 
dispensary, about fifteen to twenty per cent, of the 
women smoke, — all ages from infancy to ninety 
years. The parents blow smoke into the face of the 
infant in arms in order to soothe it to sleep. They 
seem to be bound, as it were, with chains by the 
habit, and even though they realize its terrible 
ravages they are helpless to help themselves. 

86 A Crusade of Compassion 

... In view of the low estimate of women, 

and the slight regard for the sacred- 
ness of human life, we are prepared for two piteous 
facts in Chinese domestic life, female infanticide 
and suicide. " *Are baby girls still killed at birth?' 
is often asked us," writes Dr. Mabel Hannington. 
" *Many of them are,' reply those of us who know." 

"Every now and then one reads a paper by some- 
one, who thinks he knows, in which the statement 
is made that the practice of infanticide has been 
greatly exaggerated. Much of it, it is true, does hot 
appear on the surface; an epidemic disease, such as 
plague, may occasionally make a shortage of girls, 
but it is still frightfully common. The writer has 
arrived at a house to find the first of a pair of twins, 
a girl, dead on the ground, deliberately murdered, 
and has, after a long struggle, saved the lives of 
a mother and her little girl, to find on the visit next 
day, that the latter had been put out of the way. 
One knows of women who have killed four, five, and 
even six children." {Medical Missions^ 1914.) 
• Dr. Mabel Poulter reports that quite fifty per 
cent, and perhaps even seventy per cent, of the death 
rate amongst children is due to tetanus, a disease 
which is caused by uncleanly methods in connection 
with childbirth. This is, however, only one of the 
many diseases which affect infant mortality. The 
cruelty to female children sold as slaves is appalling. 

The girl in China, as in India, is never welcome. 
From her infancy she is a burden, because she can- 
not perpetuate ancestral worship, nor be a perma- 
nent member of her own family. She makes an 
extra mouth to feed and there are no "scruples" to 

China 87 

prevent her being strangled, drowned in a cesspool, 
or thrown away. There seems not to be the custom 
of child widowhood, but betrothal takes place early 
enough to rob her of her girlhood. "It is the custom" 
is the answer to which there is no reply if inquiry 
is made as to why. Betrothal is less expensive when 
girls are young, the cost being from fifty cents to 
two dollars, while it may cost ten dollars or more 
when the girl is older, and business is business when 
it comes even to matrimony. It may be that a debt 
may need to be cancelled or the husband's family 
is in need of a maid of all work and the daughter- 
in-law is less likely to leave and costs less than a 
servant. The undivided family plan adds to her 
misery, she encounters strife perpetual, with the 
advantage on the side of her mother-in-law. She 
may have a necklace of bruises from pinchings 
around her neck, a favorite home treatment, or her 
body beaten; and when in time she becomes a wife it 
is not customary to introduce her, even among the 
well-to-do. She may, if mentioned at all, be re- 
ferred to as the 'unworthy inner one' or *the inside 
of the house.* In any case, she is the property of 
her husband, to be put away at his will. 

e . . . The subjection, the seclusion, not so 

Suicide. • -1 • T J- 1 • 1 

ngid as m India, but oppressive, the 

cruelties and exactions of life, above all its empti- 
ness, are sufficient explanation for the frequency of 
suicide among Chinese women and girls, five or ten 
times greater than among males. The perpetual 
repression of natural feelings, ambitions, and desires, 
is bound to have a disastrous reaction upon young 
wives and widows. Suicide by use of opium among 

88 A Crusade of Compassion 

them or by throwing themselves into canals and 
wells bears abundant testimony to the desperation 
which seethes below the calm surface of domestic life. 
_, ^ - Native Chinese treatments of pro- 

spective mothers and conditions con- 
sequent upon motherhood without intelligent care, 
are untellable. Women physicians see them until 
the whole head is sick and the heart faint. The 
following experience is reported by Dr. Bixby of 
Kityang: "In obstetrics more than in any other 
branch of the work, we are called upon to witness 
the pitiful ignorance and superstition of the people. 
In one case we arrived just in time to rescue a 
young woman who was being hung, because she 
had a slight hemorrhage and had fainted, and was 
supposed to be in labor, though she was not. A 
ladder had been brought in and stood upright and 
to this she was tied by her hair and supported by 
a high stool only and there she was being pounded 
and pinched to drive out the evil spirits. When w(i 
arrived she had been unconscious for some time and 
was almost pulseless. With some difficulty we got 
her down, laid her in bed, applied restoratives and 
she recovered, and a month later gave birth to a 
baby boy." 

Dr. Rachel Benn describes most graphically how 
"it need not have been." Incidentally, also, she 
answers the oft-repeated assertion that such things 
happen only among the slum people. 

"It was in the middle of a hot June afternoon in 
Tientsin, when, with many a flourish on the part 
of the chair-bearers, a sedan chair was set down at 
the doctor's door. 


China 89 

"The fine covering, the blue silk lining, the screens 
on the windows, the fluttering sunshade of soft 
black silk at the top of the windows, and, most of 
all, the flaming tassels of long red wool which adorned 
the hats of the bearers, proclaimed the chair to be 
that of a mandarin. The swelling pride with which 
the gatekeeper ushered into the doctor^s study an 
Important Individual who carried in his hand a 
leather cardcase a foot long and six inches wide, 
further proclaimed that momentous fact. Opening 
the cardcase and extracting a large red calling card 
used by the Chinese, the Important Individual pre- 
sented it, saying, 'The fourth wife of Yen-Great-Man 
has difficulty in childbearing and the Great-Man 
begs the doctor to come.* " 

"Taking the obstetrical bag that she kept always 
ready, the doctor was soon being rapidly carried 
toward the yamen — the Important Individual run- 
ning ahead calling out *Scrape your shins!* *Open 
your head/ or in plain English, 'Clear the way.* ** 

"Arriving at the yamen, the doctor found incense 
smoking in a bronze burner before the main en- 
trance in the women*s court, and E-tai-tai, or first 
wife, waiting to receive her. The servant who helped 
the doctor from the chair and led her to the lady 
did so with an air of mystery and fear. The lady 
received her in the same awe-struck manner, and 
taking her hand led her into the reception room, 
saying in a low voice, 'Doctor, sin lurks in our home. 
Our babies are all girls. We have made a pilgrimage 
to the temple to the goddess of maternity, given 
alms, burned incense not a little, and prayed Kuan- 
Yin to send us a boy this time, and now because 


90 A Crusade of Compassion 

of some unknown sin of this woman she is going 
to die before the child is born. If you have skill, 
please, please, help us/ 

"A servant entered and said, *The Great-Man 
would speak with the doctor/ He repeated the first 
wife's name, adding, *I have had the best of mid- 
wives. I have taken no account of spending money. 
I have even sent and got the sacred-pill-of-the-sea 
at seventy-five dollars apiece. Fourth wife has 
swallowed two of them and even they have done 
no good. If you can help us to obtain a son, we will 
reward you and give you a great name.' 

"The doctor wishing to see the sacred-pill-of-the- 
sea the Great-Man took from his purse a disk of 
sea-shell about two-thirds the size of a cent, bearing 
upon its face the mystical symbol of the dual powers 
of nature. The patient had swallowed two of them. 

" 'I have learned many good ways of helping,': 
said the doctor, *and if you will lead me to the^ 
patient I will do my best.' 

"As she was leaving the room, the Great-Man 
said, 'Excuse me. Doctor, one moment, please. Can 
you tell the sex of a child before it is born?' Without 
waiting for a reply he continued eagerly, *If you can 
and this one is a boy, save it even if you have to 
kill the mother. If it is a girl, kill it. We have more 
female slaves now than we want.' 

"The poor mother! Not a throb of compassion. 
She was only the unworthy medium by which a 
son might be obtained. 

"With a heavy heart the doctor followed E-tai-tai 
from the room, past the family shrine where incense 

China 91 

burning made the air heavy with its sickening odor, 
to the door of her patient's room. The door was 
opened just wide enough to admit the ladies and 
instantly closed behind them. Tlease open a window 
or a door/ the doctor pleaded. 'It will not do/ rose 
the voices of the half-dozen women in the room. 

"A luxurious bed stood in one corner of the room, 
high posted and hung around with silk curtains 
closely drawn, completely shutting in the occupant. 
Cautiously opening the curtains a little way the 
attendants thrust the doctor inside and swiftly 
closed them again. Stifling with the heat and lack 
of air, and in an agony of soul for fear she was 
going to die with an unborn child and so be doomed 
to an eternity of torment — an agony of soul which 
was worse than her agony of body, great as it was — 
sat a young girl. Folding her trembling hands, she 
raised them in supplication and fixed her beseeching 
eyes upon the doctor with a mute prayer for help 
that would have melted a heart of stone. Mystical 
characters written on red paper were pasted on her 
temples, an amulet hung round her neck and an old 
midwife sat on the bed behind her, holding her up 
and rhythmically slapping the back of her head, 
keeping time to a dismal chant. 

" *I must have air, I cannot breathe in here,' 
remonstrated the doctor as she tried to open the 
curtains. But resolute hands held them close and 
a voice outside said, *We dare not/ 

" 'Why? What do you fear?' 

" *The doctor is an outside-country person and 
doesn't understand,' the voice replied, 'Every house 


92 A Crusade of Compassion 

where birth is taking place is surrounded by dis- 
embodied spirits, eagerly watching for a chance to 
enter and take possession of the mother's body. 
They come in as fresh air and we must keep them 

" *Stop chanting, and stop slapping the Tao-tai's 
head and lay her down,' the doctor commanded the 

" 'Not so,' she retorted. *It keeps the evil influen- 
ces away and if she lies down the child will come 
up through the mouth.' 

" 'Great Lady,' called the doctor to the first 
wife outside, *why have they covered this woman 
with a man's garment and put men's shoes on the 
foot of the bed?' 

" 'Oh! that is to give her strength to bear the 

"In the end the doctor was able to convince them 
that she could save the mother and child if they 
would eliminate the midwife, ventilate the room 
and let her have her way. Near midnight the doctor 
went home, overwhelmed with gratitude, praise and 
presents, leaving a rejoicing family, for the baby 
proved to be a boy after all, although they all de- 
clared it must be a good-for-nothing girl, for no boy 
would be so unfilial as to cause his mother such 

"Five days later, the doctor was again hurried 
to the yamen, this time on the run, wherever the 
bearers could run. 

"A stricken family stood round the divan on 
which the precious boy lay. Down they went before 
the doctor, knocking their heads and imploring her 

China 93 

to save life. Reaching to lift the little one, a servant 
caught the doctor's arm and whispered, 'Don't 
touch it, it has a devil.' Assuring them that she, 
being a follower of Jesus Christ, had no fear of 
devils, the doctor took the little thing that none 
of them dared touch and laid it in her lap. It was 
dying. Noticing blood on the baby's lips, she opened 
the mouth and found that the artery under the 
tongue had been punctured several times by the 
needle of a Chinese doctor. A great wave of com- 
passion for those poor people who, in their blind 
superstition, had done the cruel thing, swept into 
the doctor's heart, and with swimming eyes and 
faltering voice, she cried out, *0h! why did you do 
this. You have killed your baby!' *No, no,' cried 
the heart-broken father. Those are very cruel 
words you have spoken. Would we harm a son 
whom we wanted more than anything else on earth? 
A devil was in it twisting its body in convulsions, 
and there was no way to dislodge it except by 
sticking with needles under the tongue. Oh, no,' 
he continued vehemently, Ve didn't kill our son. 
It never was a child. It was a demon sent in the 
form of a son to cause great suffering at its birth 
and then die and wring our hearts with the greatest 
of disappointments. It is all on account of the 
wickedness of the women of our household. I am 
a marked man!' and he went from the room in 
despair, as the doctor rose and gently laid the little 
dead baby upon the couch." 

The woman We have been pondering a dozen or 
herself. more serious, and very serious, handi- 

caps under which the Chinese woman labors, but 

94 A Crusade of Compassion 

they all seem to fade into a misty vagueness when 
she herself appears. Have you seen her, the Chris- 
tian Chinese girl, in this country? If so, you have 
been astonished. For, instead of the timid, cringing 
nonentity which you expected, driven by demon- 
fears and social cruelties to something less than a 
cipher, you have met a graceful, bright-eyed, bright- 
witted young woman, with a distinct and delicate 
sense of humor, an equally distinct, albeit gentle 
self-confidence, combined with deference to elders 
peculiarly pleasing here among us. Our Chinese 
girl student moves among her fellow-students in 
our American colleges as one to the manner born, 
not at all overawed but even less self-assertive or 

While it must be emphasized that 
those who come among us have been 
long under Christian influences in China, perhaps 
the quality which impresses us most in them is 
peculiar to their nation and their native training; 
this is their intuitive perception of that which is 
fitting, something more than good taste, deeper 
than decorum. The effort to define it sends us back 
to the mysterious and significant Chinese word, Li, 
Originally indicative of religious devotion and cere- 
monial and the ritual of sacrifice, this term has come 
to embrace the complete round of social life, in- 
cluding manners and conduct. Reverence for per- 
sonality, filial piety, sincerity, correct speech are 
included in it, but more than this, to use the words 
of a thoughtful writer,* ''Li controls the thoughts 

* See "The Christian Opportunity in Regard to the Women of China," 
by Luella Miner, International Review of Missions y April, 191 7. 

China 95 

of the heart no less surely than the acts of the 
body." Here we find the secret of the dignity and 
poise which undeniably belong to the Chinese woman 
at home or abroad, in contradistinction from the 
passive pathos of the Indian woman. This charac- 
teristic may be rooted also in the sure knowledge of 
the Chinese woman that, when the wife becomes 
the mother of a boy, she is bound to emerge from 
her status of subjection to one of something like 
authority. Filial piety is owed as much to the mother 
as to the father in China. 
_, . In intellectual capacity there are no 

Brain power. in • • „ ^1 1 1 

bramier women anywhere than the 
Chinese, on the testimony of competent observers. 
An official statement of the Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association of China in 1910 contains the follow- 
ing expression: "Let none think Chinese women 
inferior to those of any other land. There is no line 
of study or of effort in which they do not excel and 
no height of character to which they do not attain.'* 

The mental initiative of the young Chinese women 
in this country is well illustrated by the following 

Several Chinese college girls, Indemnity Students, 
were spending their first Christmas holidays in 
America in a home in New England. 

Their hostess, anxious to entertain them according 
to their desires, said, "I have left three days for 
you to plan for. There must be places you would 
like to visit in Boston or things you would especially 
enjoy doing. Please tell me, as I would like to plan 
for your pleasure." 

Six eager faces looked into hers. The first girl 


96 A Crusade of Compassion 

said, "I would like so much to go to the ImbeciTe 
School"; another broke in, "And I to the Perkins 
Institute for the Blind." "But," said the bewildered 
hostess, who had not thought of this sort of Christ- 
mas holiday diversion, "I do not understand what 
pleasure you could possibly get from visiting an 
imbecile school." "You know," was the quick an- 
swer, "that there is one of the finest schools for the 
feeble-minded in the world near Boston. I want to 
learn how they teach, so that I can help such chil- 
dren in China." Thus each one expressed her mind 
and all the wishes were gratified, including'an X-ray 

There is a great new hope for China in the en- 
lightened devotion of the Chinese students who 
come among us. These girls, with few exceptions, 
are Christians and were trained in our mission 

Can any one doubt the ability of educated Chinese 
women to render effective service to their suffering 
sisters as Christian physicians? 
»ir J. f ^1 There are already in China three 

Medical schools. j- 1 1. 1 r t«u n 

medical schools for women. The Pe- 
king Medical School for Women, teaching in Man- 
darin; the Soo Chow Women's Medical School, 
teaching in English; and the Hackett Medical 
College for Women of Canton, teaching in Cantonese. 
Geographically they are far removed from one 
another and no two are teaching in the same lan- 
guage. The Peking School has fifty-eight students 
in three classes; the Soo Chow school, thirteen 
students in two classes; and the Canton, twenty-five 
students in four classes. In June, 191 6, five girls 

China 97 

graduated from the Soo Chow Medical College after 
the completion of a five year's medical course in 
English. Already twelve hospitals have applied for 
these girls as assistant physicians. Consideration of 
the work, present and prospective, of these schools 
is reserved for our last chapter. 

^. How Christianity Brings Healing 

Three months after the death of the pioneer 
Christian missionary to China, Robert Morrison 
(term of service 1 807-1 834), there arrived in the 
port of Canton the first medical missionary to 
China, Dr. Peter Parker. His remarkable skill in 
surgery overcame the iron prejudices of the Chinese 
against the stranger; his cures were pronounced 
miraculous and his fame spread throughout the 
eighteen provinces. In 1835 Dr. Parker opened the 
first medical missionary hospital in China, medical 
work thus receiving permanent shape. 

It was about forty years between the 
advent of Dr. Parker in Canton and 
that of the first woman medical missionary for 
China, Dr. Lucinda Coombs, sent by the Wom- 
an's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, as was Dr. Clara Swain, and, like 
Dr. Swain, a graduate of the Woman's Medical 
College of Pennsylvania. In 1875 ^^' Coombs opened 
the first hospital for women in China. In 1879 -'-^^• 
Caroline Daniels was sent to Swatow by the Ameri- 
can Baptist Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 
of the West. Dr. Mary Holbrook, a graduate of the 
Medical Department of Michigan University, was 

98 A Crusade of Compassion 

the first appointee of the Congregational Women's 
Board, her station Tung-cho. The Woman's Board 
of the Interior, in 1881, sent Dr. Murdock to Kalgan, 
on the borders of Mongolia. In 1882 Dr. Mary F. 
Niles was sent to Canton by the Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society of the Presbyterian Church. The 
list of pioneer medical wonien missionaries to China, 
included in the years between 1873 ^"^ 1883, closes 
with an illustrious name, that of Dr. Elizabeth 
Reifsnyder, sent in 1883 to Shanghai by the Woman's 
Union Missionary Society. 

There are today four hundred and fifty-three 
missionary physicians on the field in China, three 
hundred and forty-five men, one hundred and eight 
women, and two hundred and forty-four hospitals. 
But China's population is four hundred million and 
one large American city would show more than four 
hundred qualified physicians. From a report on 
medical work in China published by the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian 
Church we give the following summary: 

Summary What are these agencies, small and scattered 

of work. as they are, doing for China? 

1. They are giving the services of a band of qualified men 
and women, who are devoting their lives to healing service, 
asking no other reward. 

2. They are establishing a chain of hospitals and dispensaries 
throughout the land to serve as centres of sanitary science and 
benevolent help. 

3. They are maintaining a small group of asylums for special 
classes — the insane, the blind, the deaf, the lepers — to serve as 
models for future advance. 

4. They are furnishing a small army of native physicians and 
nurses, trained in the old days by the pioneers with self-denying 

China 99 

patience, now instructed in good schools sustained by joint 

5. They are translating the best medical books, without 
which the schools would be hopelessly hampered, and carrying 
on research work in special lines. 

6. They are helping to rid the country of the awful opium 
curse. AH our hospitals treat hundreds of opium cases yearly. 

7. The direct results of the medical work in bringing souls 
to Christ are not small. 

The medical missionaries are always in the forefront of the 
battle against plague and cholera, and conspicuous in every 
movement for better living. All this is done at very small 
expense. A single hospital in one of our large American cities 
costs yearly far more than all our work in China put together. 

Hospital Dr. Emily Bretthauer, head of the 

routine. Baptist Woman's Hospital at Han- 

yang, Central China, describes in few and compre- 
hensive words the leading characteristics of her 
work, which we give as representative. Evangeliza- 
tion and doctoring go hand in hand in all depart- 
ments. The work is divided into three departments: 
out-patient, in-patient, and nurses* training school. 
The out-patient department includes the work in the 
dispensary, in the office, and professional visits to 
the homes of the natives. In the dispensary many 
women receive their introduction to Christianity. 
A Chinese woman rarely comes alone; a relative or 
two, or even three, must come along to see what is 
going on, and so it does not take long before there 
is a whole room full of women who are listening to 
the Gospel message. Some of them come a long time 
before dispensary hours, even as much as four hours 
before. During the time of waiting the Bible woman 
speaks personally to each patient as she comes in. 

loo A Crusade of Compassion 

and when they are all gathered together she preach- 
es to them until the arrival of the doctor. The 
doctor with the native nurses then sees to the phy- 
sical wants of the patients. She sees each patient 
herself and speaks words of consolation or cheer as 
well as prescribes medicine. A large number of the 
patients in the dispensary are of the poorer classes, 
some even of the beggars from the street. 

As the more well-to-do Chinese women do not 
care to mix with the poorer classes, we have ar- 
ranged for them to come to the doctor s office^ paying, 
of course, a larger fee. These patients are received 
by a tactful native nurse, and over the inevitable 
cup of tea their minds are led from the usual polite 
talk to that which is nearest and dearest to our 
hearts. While they tell us of their ills, we tell them 
of Him who is able to save the soul as well as to 
heal the body. 

As to the calls at the homes^ these include all 
classes, from those of the very poorest to those oi 
the highest officials. Here is an unusual opportunity 
for telling of Jesus. As soon as the doctor and native 
nurses enter the house, if it is of a poor woman, 
say a hut, all the women of the neighboring huts 
come crowding in, so there is soon an audience as 
large as one cares to have. These people are good 
listeners, too. 

In the hospital women and children are brought 
under the influence of the Gospel for a much longer 
period, some even for months. It is our special 
opportunity for the children. 

» The popular prejudice against and fear of foreign- 
ers at first holds both children and women at a 

China ioi 

distance, but these dissolve on acquaintance. An 
instance may be given of a woman severely ill who 
needed hospital treatment. She hesitated long, "be- 
cause," she said, "I have been told that the foreign 
people cut out the hearts and the eyes of the Chi- 
nese, so it is not safe to have anything to do with 
them." However, she decided to come into the 
hospital and have her operation. After she went 
back home she did much to overcome prejudice in 
her village. "I am an example of the love which 
these Christian people have for the Chinese," she 
was wont to say. As in India, the women marvel 
at the cleanliness, the tender treatment, the peaceful 
atmosphere which they find in the hospital; above 
all, at the willingness of the foreign medical ladies 
to perform for them menial service which their own 
mothers would not do. 

What is true in this hospital is essentially descrip- 
tive of the work in all mission hospitals for women 
in China. Since women are prevented by custom 
from seeking help from male physicians, the need 
of an adequate number of native women practi- 
tioners is apparent. It would seem that if there is 
a place in all the world where a woman's trained 
touch is indispensable it is in Chinese mission hospi- 
tals for women. There can be no question of ability, 
when such work is being done as was described by 
Dr. Irving Ludlow of Cleveland, Ohio, in his obser- 
vations on medical progress in the Orient. He was, 
when in China, asked to operate on three or four 
very serious cases (all major operations in which 
women here have but rarely been allowed to do more 
than look on at a safe and worshipful distance). 

102 A Crusade of Compassion 

with the Chinese women as assistant surgeons. The 
proposal at first seemed to him preposterous. "Could 
it be possible that Chinese women could be so far 
advanced as to carry out the technique of abdominal 
surgery?" But again the old proverb, "Seeing is 
believing" was fulfilled, and he reports "that a more 
neat, dignified, calm, and skilful staflF would be hard 
to find. Not only are they good as assistants, but 
some of the graduates perform operations with 
excellent results. One in particular is an exceedingly 
clever and careful surgeon, and only a few weeks 
previous to my visit had removed successfully an 
ovarian cyst, weighing eighty pounds. This same 
surgeon has had an enormous obstetrical experience, 
most of the cases being out of the ordinary, for it 
is rarely that a physician would be summoned for 
a normal case." He writes, furthermore: "It has been 
almost imperative that work for women be ke])t 
entirely separate, for it is only within the last few 
years that men have been allowed to have any part 
in the care of women. Many, particularly of the 
higher class, would doubtless prefer death rather 
than allow a man to take charge of them." 

5. Three Life-saving Stations 

The forty-six years of Christian women's medical 
work for women of China has resulted in a series 
of hospitals, extending, — at sadly wide removes one 
from another, indeed, — over the vast territory. Each 
one is a beacon light sending out its rays of compas- 
sion over the sea of suflfering humanity. Whether 
larger or smaller, each one of these hospitals is a 
life-saving station; all are dedicated to the Great 


China 103 

Physician in whose name they exist and whose 
command they follow. In order to come into touch 
with all, we choose three for illustration, three which 
nobly represent the series: namely, the Margaret 
Williamson Hospital at Shanghai, the David Gregg 
Hospital at Canton, and the Danforth Memorial 
Hospital at Kiu Kiang. These are chosen, in particu- 
lar, as being widely separated geographically, and 
each as holding a point of strategic importance. Take 
a map of China, and, having cut from paper an 
obtuse-angled triangle, lay it along the coast, the 
obtuse angle to the right, the lower acute angle 
touching Canton on the south, the upper angle rest- 
ing on Shanghai far to the north. Look inland, then, 
to the valley of the Yangtse River and you will find 
that the obtuse angle, — if you have the requisite 
proportions, — precisely touches the city of Kiu 
Kiang. So your triangle brings before you two great 
and widely separated seaports of China and a typical 
inland, provincial city. 

Three famous The Christian hospitals in these 
women. three cities owe much to the potent 

personality of three physicians presiding over them: 
Dr. Elizabeth Reifsnyder, Dr. Mary Fulton, and 
Dr. Mary Stone. Let us find our way first to the 
city of Shanghai, since its hospital was first founded. 
Station number 1, It is now not far from forty years 
Shanghai. gince Mrs. Margaret Williamson ap- 

peared at the Board Rooms of the Woman's Union 
Missionary Society in New York with the first 
money towards the erection of the hospital that 
bears her name, because it was built by her gener- 
osity. Mrs. Williamson was one of the early mem- 

I04 A Crusade of Compassion 

bers of this Board, the first Woman's Board of 
Foreign Missions, which celebrated its fiftieth anni- 
versary in January, 191 1. As a consequence of this 
initial action of Mrs. WilUamson, Dr. Elizabeth 
Reifsnyder arrived in Shanghai September first, 
1883, and there began the study of the Chinese 
language and the practice of medicine. 

In April, 1884, having been joined by Miss Mc- 
Kechnie (now Mrs. E. H.Thomson), a trained nurse, 
Dr. Reifsnyder hired two rooms and opened a 
dispensary in the native city, inside the West Gate. 
Here patients were seen three afternoons in the 
week, and here the work went on steadily until 
June, 1885, when the hospital was opened. The road 
leading to this dispensary was not a pleasant one; 
only the grace of God could help one to travel it 
day after day, for there was so much that was most 
offensive to one's several senses. During this ye^.r 
of dispensary work in those quarters with their mud 
floors and bare benches, despite ups and downs, 
almost four thousand patients were treated. 

The first piece of land for the Margaret William- 
son Hospital was secured in 1883, the year of the 
donor's death. Her name lives and will live in years 
to come in the hearts of thousands, and she will ever 
be remembered as one of China's great benefactors. 
To this first piece of land eight more have been 
added, all lying well out of the city limits. Upon 
this ground were erected the main building, the 
home for medical workers, the maternity hospital 
and the house for nurses and assistants, all gifts of 
friends at home supplemented by notable generosity 
on the part of Chinese citizens. 


China 105 

Over and beyond the regular work of the hospital 
is its function of serving as a home of refuge from 
the ills and trials of life. Many homeless and afflicted 
waifs have found here a home and a chance, in the 
end, to render loving service. The evangelistic side 
of the work is of great importance. It has been 
truly said, "Life is but a means unto an end, and 
that end God," and this purpose hospital life seeks 
to serve. The evangelistic work is in charge of 
Misses Mary and Elizabeth Irvine, who not only 
spend much time in the wards, but who follow up 
a great many patients in their homes, making long 
trips into the country by boat and wheelbarrow. 
Hundreds of towns and villages are represented at 
the dispensary and in the wards by women and 
children in the course of years, sometimes a hundred 
in a single year. It may be seen that a physician in 
charge of a hospital in China, with an annual clien- 
tele of some fifty thousand daily patients and some 
eight hundred in-patients and the entire charge of 
administration, must have mind and hands fully 
occupied. The success of the administration is 
shown by the fact that the larger part of the support 
for the Margaret Williamson Hospital is met by 
receipts from Chinese patients. On the occasion of 
its twenty-fifth anniversary, June 4, 191 1, Dr. Reif- 
snyder was able to report eight hundred thousand 
patients treated in the Hospital since its foundation. 
Much more might be said, but the work will speak 
for itself in the years to come, and "to God be the 

Station number 2, The Rev. Albert A. Fulton went to 
Canton. China as a missionary (American 

io6 A Crusade of Compassion 

Presbyterian) in 1880. Four years later he was 
joined in Canton by his sister, Mary Fulton, a 
qualified physician. She will speak to us through 
her letters in which we listen to the voice of a coura- 
geous, ardent, consecrated soldier in the Battalion 
of Life. As Dr. Fulton will by no means sound her 
own trumpet and as the sentences from her letters 
are, of necessity, fragments, let us introduce her 
by saying that, when she reached China, she chose 
to carry on her work in a notoriously hostile prov- 
ince, until she was driven back to Canton with a 
price upon her head. Through her steadfast waiting 
and tireless labors in Canton there has developed 
from the humblest beginnings the threefold work. 
Hospital, Medical College, and Nurses' Training 
School, of which she will presently make mention. 
The property consists of one and one-half acres 
of land, with seven buildings, in the western suburb 
of Canton. The buildings are of grey brick, and 
open on all sides to the light and air. The older 
buildings accommodate the chapel, dining rooms, 
laboratories, and recitation rooms. The main hospi- 
tal, rebuilt in 1913, is provided with every modern 
facility for ventilation and cleanliness. There is a 
specially well-equipped operating department, built 
according to the requirements of modern surgery 
and clinical instruction. 

Enter Dr. Fulton. Hongkong, China, October 11, 1884. After 
years of preparation and a journey of seven 
thousand miles, I am at last in this great Empire of China. 


August, 1895. In the last two years I have accomplished 
very little that can be tabulated. We rented two shops, one 


China 107 

for a chapel, the other for dispensing. Every day at noon the 
chapel doors are thrown open for preaching. The dispensary 
is open daily. Some women who, when they came for treat- 
ment, had never heard of God's existence, are now members 
of church. When we began services at this place, scarcely half 
a dozen attended; yesterday there were nearly a hundred. What 
we need and what I am daily praying for is a women's and 
children's hospital, with a room large enough to accommodate 
all who would come to church. It seems like hoping against 
hope, but power is with God, who can turn the hearts of men 
toward this much-needed place for healing and worship. I shall 
keep on knocking until some one hears. This small shop is the 
only place for Christian worship in all this part of a great heathen 
city, wholly given to idolatry. 

March, 1901. My brother writes from America that money 
has been given by Lafayette Avenue Church, Brooklyn, for a 
woman's hospital. Fifteen years I have longed, worked, prayed 
for this. 

August. Mr. E. A. J. Hackett, of Fort Wayne, Indiana, has 
given money to build a medical college for women. I couldn't 
find words in the English language to express my delight and 

October, 1901. A Chinese gentleman came in with over one 
thousand dollars in straw bags, which his servant placed upon 

the table. I was amazed. Mr. L said that several gentlemen 

had been asked to contribute this sum to a benevolent object. 
Some trouble arose and they decided to give it to the David 
Gregg Hospital. This, with money contributed by Mr. John 
H. Converse, furnished the building with the most necessary 

David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children was formally 
opened April 23, 1902. 

In connection with the hospital will be the Julia M. Turner 
Training School for Nurses. The course will require two years. 

Hackett Medical College for Women was opened December 
17, 1902. 

(April I, 1903, to October 13, 1904, Dr. Fulton was absent 
on furlough.) 

io8 A Crusade of Compassion 

April, 1905. Erection of the new maternity ward begun. Mr. 
Hackett sent more money for a lecture hall. 

While I was in Philadelphia last year, Mrs. Turner said she 
wished to give a maternity ward in memory of Mary H. Perkins, 
one of the founders of the Foreign Missionary Society. Imagine! 
Some one comingy giving! So long accustomed had I been to 
wait years for a building after I wanted it, that really it left 
one breathless from sheer astonishment. From the humble, 
quiet manner of the offer, one would infer a favor was being 
asked; that five dollars was promised instead of many thou- 
sands. But then, there is only one Mrs. Turner in the world. 

June. The hospital is full, and seven beds on the verandahs. 
It is now entirely self-supporting. 

September, 1907. College reopened. Forty-two students are 

China is awakening so rapidly that she is not only crying 
from hunger, but one may say screaming for immediate nourish- 
ment, in the way of books and help ot every kind. What we 
do to supply her need is small, but is better than nothing. At 
intervals I have translated: Remarkable Answers to Prayer^ 
Diseases of Children^ Nursing in Abdominal Surgery y Penrose's 
Gynecology y Hopkins* s Roller Bandage, 

High lights, these scattered records, in a high 

Station number 3, ^^ ^he City of Klu-Kiang, in the year 
intheYangtse 1 873, a little daughter was born to 
^^^^^^* the Christian Chinese pastor and his 

wife, Mr. and Mrs. Shih. They gave their baby the 
name Mei-yu, meaning Beautiful Jewel. To the 
amazement of all their friends and neighbors the 
new little daughter was as joyously welcomed in 
the household of the Shihs as if she had been a son. 
As years went on a new cause of amazement among 
their neighbors was furnished, for the little Mei-yu's 
feet were never bound. She was the first girl brought 
up by her own parents in all central and western 

China 109 

China with unbound feet. Her playmates called her 
shoes "salt-junks" and ridiculed her cruelly as she 
ran, fleet and firm, along the streets, while they 
hobbled on their tortured stumps, their *'lily" feet, 
encased in tiny toy slippers. When she was eight 
years old Mei-yu Shih was brought by her father 
and mother to the mission school in Kiu-Kiang 
presided over by Miss Gertrude Howe. "We have 
brought our little girl to you," they said. "We want 
you to make a doctor of her. We see how much 
good your American doctors are doing our people, 
but we feel that a Chinese woman doctor might 
do many things which a foreigner could not do." 
With gladness Miss Howe accepted the charge. 

With Mei-yu there was educated a child of her 
own age, who had been adopted by Miss Howe when 
she was a new-born baby, for, being a fifth daughter, 
her parents had decided to sell or give her away. 
Miss Howe took her to her heart and named her 
Ida Kahn. Like Mei-yu her feet remained unbound. 
The free limbs of these two little girls, developed 
in normal fashion and their minds, not tortured 
by superstitious fears, grew unfettered among the 
crippled and stunted children around them. In 
1892, Mei-yu Shih, Mary Stone, as she is now called 
by English-speaking people, and Ida Kahn were 
brought by Miss Howe to the United States to 
study medicine at Michigan University. Here they 
were graduated in 1896, and on their return to 
Kiu-Kiang, as Dr. Stone and Dr. Kahn, they re- 
ceived a wonderful ovation and at once began the 
practice of medicine among the women of their own 
people under the auspices of the Woman's Foreign 

no A Crusade of Compassion 


Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 

Dr. Stone worked for several years in a little 
hospital only 21x28 feet in size, containing only 
twenty beds. However, in 1900, a well-known phy- 
sician in Chicago, the late Dr. I. N. Danforth, who 
was strongly interested in foreign missionary work 
in China, especially in its relation to the introduc- 
tion of modern medicine into that country, offered 
to build for Dr. Stone a hospital in memory of his 
wife. Since that time a modern hospital has been 
built. Inspired by her love and sympathy for suffer- 
ing Chinese women, with this splendid plant in 
which to work. Dr. Stone has spread the fame of 
the Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Memorial Hospital 
throughout the Yangtse Valley. She has become a 
very skilful surgeon as well as physician. Most re- 
markable are the operations which she has performed. 

Several times Dr. Stone has returned to America 
for rest and further study at Johns Hopkins. She is 
a forceful speaker, being winsome, witty, and inspir- 
ing. One of the best after-dinner speeches that was 
ever made in this country was made by the "little 
doctor" at a great banquet in Los Angeles. Not- 
withstanding her prominence, she is simple and 
unassuming. Her work absorbs her very life. 

Dr. Stone has adopted four Chinese lads whom 
she is bringing up. Two are relatives, one is the son 
of a widowed Bible woman, and the fourth is a 
famine orphan. She is in charge of a home for 
cripples near the hospital in Kiu-Kiang. Further- 
more, Dr. Stone is a leader in reform movements in 
China. She is a member of the China Continuation 

China hi 

Committee and has recently been president of the 
National Woman^s Christian Temperance Union of 
China. Her Hfe is full to overflowing. 

In the year 191 6, Dr. Stone treated in her hospital 
over twenty-four thousand cases. Her expert nurses 
receive only fifty dollars a year each and out of 
that gladly give one-tenth to the district's mission- 
;iry work. 

,.-<' "There is a flag that flies higher than the flags 
of all the nations," said Dr. Stone. "It is the Red 
Cross flag, and I think it will sometime be the flag 
of all the world. And what could be more appropri- 
ate, for it symbolizes the love of Christ, expressing 
itself in service among men.*'^ 

From a personal letter recently received from Dr. 
Stone we are enabled to quote as follows: 

With my head so full of ideas and my heart bent on doing 
more for the Lord's kingdom, I returned to Kiu-Kiang from 
Hankow with plans for the New Year Forward Evangelistic 
Campaign. It was, indeed, a case where "man proposes and 
God disposes." I plunged right into our medical work. The 
city was fighting an epidemic of pneumonia. An old missionary 
was struck down with it also. I was tired and overheated on 
the steamer and caught a very bad cold and after a week's 
struggle to pull my pneumonia cases up I succumbed myself 
and, as a result, I have been a patient myself causing so much 
anxiety to our mission and co-workers. I have been very grate- 
ful for the quiet time I have had on my sick bed, also for the 
way the Lord has cared for His work among us. The concession 
doctor has been most kind to me and our entire mission. He 
has been our mission doctor as well as surgeon in the Danforth 
Hospital. His letter to me since I came up to Kuling will report 
so fully of the Lord's work, yes, your work, too^ that I am 
tempted to put an extract in. 

Extracts from Dr. Tenney's letter: 

The work at your hospital is exceedingly pleasant, and also 


112 A Crusade of Compassion 


a very valuable experience for me. I am most pleased with the 
two Dr. Kwangs. Dr. Kathleen gives an excellent anaesthetic, 
certainly far better than the average well-trained physician at 
home. Dr. Alice is a very clear-headed, conscientious and hard- 
working girl, and I am most pleased with her work. 

Your hospital is a real oasis in the desert. It is a great 
pleasure to me to be greeted by the smiling faces of the doctors 
and nurses and to receive such courteous treatment from them. 
Without any flattery or exaggeration, I have never seen in 
China such a high degree of Christian character as is exhibited 
on the faces of your doctors and nurses at the Danforth Hos- 
pital. Whenever I hear any sneers at missionaries, as one does 
occasionally in the concession, my answer is, **You would change 
your mind if you went to Dr. Stone's hospital." 

The following statistics will help our friends to understand 
how faithfully our workers have carried on the work. We have 
again graduated three nurses out of their original class of six- 
teen. This year we have taken another big class of freshmen. 
Last year we sent out a large number of graduates to take 
important positions throughout the country. Instead of de- 
pleting our work it has reacted in sending us more highly edu- 
cated girls to study nursing. 

Increasing opportunities are given us to teach, to preach and 
to heal. A great gospel tent was put up in our yard last fall 
for the conference and, instead of pulling it down, money was 
given us to put it in a permanent shape. We have had mass 
meetings, educational meetings for the masses in the city, where 
magic lantern slides on the life and work of Christ were shown. 
Lectures on hygiene, such as "Flies kill people," "The Plague," 
"Tuberculosis," "Mosquitoes," have been illustrated on the 
screen for the people. 

An official is visiting Kuling. He had been troubled with 

insomnia for six months. General W recommended me as 

physician. I tried to refuse, because I was under orders not to 
work this summer. No excuse whatever was accepted, so, like 
an obedient subject, I went to examine him. As was expected, 
the political troubles in the country were uppermost in his 
mind. He said, "When one is besieged on all sides, what is a 
person to do?" 


China 113 

There and then was my privilege to tell him he way upwards, 
the ever-present help in time of need. Suffice it to say that he 
is very much better without the least medicine and we pray 
that his friendliness to the Gospel may mean eventually his 
own salvation and that of his household. When he returned the 
call the next day he said he was going to send his wife to see me. 

Danforth Hospital Statistics, July Ij 191 8 

Dispensary visits, new 8,818 

Dispensary visits, old 8,576 

Hospital in-patients i ji42 

Operations under anaesthetic 561 

Obstetric cases 93 

Out-visits 3^^ 

Surgical dressings I3>59^ 

Grand total of treatments 33*14^ 

Grand total receipts for fees and drugs, ^7,701.19 Mex. 
Total number of patients who have accepted Christ, 600. 

1 14 A Crusade of Compassion 



From Swatow, China, comes a moving story of the power 
of a medical mission. A well-to-do Chinese merchant of Swatow, 
hearing of the good deeds done at the hospital, began, and for 
a number of years continued to send to the doctor tickets for 
cash and rice to be given to the poorest of the patients. These 
would amount sometimes to as much as ninety dollars in the 
year. He did this with a view to amass merit for himself. He 
kept a daybook in which he entered his merits and demerits, 
finding doubtless at the end of the year that there was a large 
balance to the credit of his meritorious deeds. 

He came himself one day to the hospital, and saw the doctor 
kneeling down and dressing the sores of a poor beggar. "Ah!" 
he said, "I could not do that; that is too much." Another time 
he listened to the message given to the patients. It was on the 
forgiveness of one's enemies, and he ejaculated, "That is beyond 
me; I could not do that." He found also that the Chinese 
Christians were really seeking to carry out the teaching and 
his self-righteousness got a severe blow. He began to be in 
earnest about his soul, and later on he came into the light. He 
began also to be in earnest about giving in a still worthier 
fashion. On one occasion he gave two thousand dollars, and 
on another, twenty thousand, and once again, six thousand; 
all in connection with the Swatow medical mission work. He 
passed through many trials, but held fast his faith, and was 
baptized in the presence of a great crowd of people. 

The woes of Chinese medical treatment bear with special 
hardships on Chinese women. Their physical miseries are be- 
yond estimate. The presence of an educated Christian medical 
woman in the sick room, wise and winning, strong and sweet, 
is one of God's best gifts to China. 

Arthur H. Smith. 



Korea becomes Chosen, 

Racial Traits^ Religions and Customs, 

Status of Korean Women, 

Native Treatment of Disease, 

Christ comes to Korea, 


/. Where Two Streams meet: Orient and Occident, 

2, Characteristics of the Filipinos. 

J. The American Invasion: Political^ Religious^ 

/f. Medical Missions in the Islands, 


/. Obstacles to Missionary Work, 
2, Results of Medical Missions, 

Work among Lepers in the Far East, 



"When the modern Korean decides to be a Christian he tells his 
friends that he has made up his mind to ^do the doctrine.'" 

Missionary Review of the World. 

In the streets of a town of Korea a stranger stood 
one morning at an early hour and watched a mis- 
sionary passing on his way. "Who is that man?" the 
stranger asked of a Korean. 

"He is the Jesus man, going to see some one who 
is sick," was the reply. 

The Jesus men and the Jesus women with their 
ministry of life* and healing are conquering Korea 
for their King in a deeper sense than the agents of 
the Japanese Government won it for their Emperor. 
That Korea is now annexed politically to Japan is, 
however, undeniably greatly to her own material 

I, Korea becomes Chosen 

Cho-sen, the old name, meaning land of the morn- 
ing freshness, has become the new name of Korea 
as a province of Japan. "From a political point of 
view the geographical position of this country is 
most unfortunate. Placed between two rival nations, 
aliens in blood, temper, and policy, Cho-sen with 
her twelve millions of population has been the rich 
grist between the powerful upper and nether mill- 


ii8 A Crusade of Compassion 


stones of China and Japan with their vast resources. 
From prehistoric days she has been threatened or 
devastated by her enemies. Nevertheless, Korea has 
always remained Korea, a separate country, and the 
people are Koreans, more allied to the Japanese 
than the Chinese, yet in language, politics, and 
social customs different from either." 

2, Racial Traits y Religions and Customs ^p 

A racial trait of the Koreans most repellent to the 
foreigner is their unspeakable uncleanliness. All 
refuse is thrown on the ground and left in the hot 
sun. Liquid filth is carried in open trenches and left 
to seep into the soil and contaminate the wells. Infl 
the wet season a Korean city becomes a hotbed of 
cholera, typhus, and like diseases. The Korean, 
naturally indolent, resents the determined efforts of ■ 
the usurping Japanese authorities to clean his filthy 
alleys and inaugurate sanitary measures, but it can- 
not be denied that, as regards the physical basis of 
life, the taking over of the reins of power by Japan 
is all to the good. Korea is rousing to a realization 
of her abject poverty, ignorance, and backwardness 
as related to modern civilization; she clamors for 
enlightment and education. Japan is not only clean- 
ing her up, but waking her up. But another power 
than that of Japan is lifting her up, in the highest 

"Human nature in good average quality and quan- 
tity dwells under the big hat of the Korean." Indeed, 
it is a common experience that those who live for 
any length of time in the Orient come to realize 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 119 

that the difference between the Occidental and the 
Oriental is largely superficial. The assurance that 
"God hath made of one blood all the nations of the 
earth" takes on a new significance and creates quite 
a different attitude of mind. Missionaries have put 
the matter to proof by planting the seed that God 
is Love, not fear, and, behold, in Korea we see a 
twentieth century Apostolic Church. 
The Korean The Korean has been caricatured and 

*^i°^self. usually regarded as contemptible and 

hopeless. But those who have found the way to his 
heart reveal another picture. His national traits are 
lovable ones and among these one of the most sacred 
is that of hospitality. It is said that this is so marked 
that inns are very few; houses are so built that the 
exterior room may provide rest and welcome even 
for the stranger. His conservatism is obvious from 
his having remained Korean notwithstanding his 
menacing environment. Neighborliness, an innate 
respect for the law of brotherhood which reveals 
itself in numberless little ways, especially on occa- 
sions of need, is very beautiful. 

Love of The normal Korean is fond of chil- 

chUdren. dren, especially of sons, who in his 

eyes are worth ten times as much as daughters. 
Exposure of children is unknown. Judging from 
collections of toys, terms of endearment, and words 
relating to games, sports, festivals and recreations, 
nursery stories, etc., the life of little Kim must be a 
pleasant one. While girls are not prized as highly 
as boys yet they are neither superfluous nor unwel- 
come. The birth of a girl is not made an occasion of 
rejoicing, but that of the first-born son is. 

I20 A Crusade of Compassion 


(''" There are no separating dialects. The language 
■ lends itself to the strongest vituperation, that tor- 
rent of vpcal filth which flows so freely and charac- 
terizes all unrestrained emotion in the Orient. It is 
said also to surpass English as a medium of public 
speaking. Literacy is not monopolized by the men. 
Perhaps two women in five study a little Chinese, 
but not more than one per cent, really learn to read it. 
Buddhism, Confucianism, together with the wor- 
ship of ancestors, and what we might call Demon- 
ism, all have a part to play in the life of Korea, but 
it is a minor and by no means a vital part, with the 
exception of the last-named. Korea is unique in that 
she apparently is a nation without a religion. Travel- 
ers find "cities without priests or temples, houses 
without god shelves, village festivals without idols 
carried in festive processions, marriage and burial 
without priestly blessing." 
; When trouble comes in the form of illness, from 
palace to hovel the people resort to the sorceress 
who is supposed to have commerce with evil spirits. 
She is the lowest of the low, an outcast and yet an 
indispensable factor in the community. Wherever 
there is illness the Mu-dang or Sorceress is constant- 
ly seen going through various musical and dancing 
performances in front of the house where the sick- 
ness occurs. Millions of dollars are spent annually 
to support this Vorm eating the heart of this nation 
unknown.' The name, Mu-dang, means deceiving 
crowd and no women in Korea are more depraved 
than she, yet all women and most men fear her and 
support her nefarious work. Akin to her, yet differ- 
ent, is the blind exorcist, the Pan-Su, who is an 



Korea, the Philippines and Slam 121 

enemy of the spirits and drives them away by a 
superior power. The authority of these charlatans 
has been perceptibly on the wane since Christianity 
was introduced into Korea. 

J. Status of Korean Women 

As a class women have greater freedom in Korea 
than in some Asiatic countries. In this they resem- 
ble the Burmese women. There are three main class- 
es, the upper, middle, and lower, and the better bred 
a woman is the greater is her seclusion. With her 
literally liberty is peril. The chief business of women 
is motherhood. But there are, in addition, other 
occupations which they may enter, such as the keep- 
ing of a wine shop. This is an occupation for a 
woman of the upper class. Silk-culture, tutoring 
Chinese classics, keeping of bees, making of straw 
shoes, exorcism, fortune-telling, sewing and em- 
broidery may occupy her time. But the highest 
form of labor to which a lady is eligible is that of a 
physician. In fact, no woman can be a physician in 
Korea unless she belongs to the upper class. Of the 
nature of this medical practice we shall hear more 

"Look h »» Marriage takes place by public recipe 
rocal salutation. If the husband re- 
pudiates his wife, he cannot take another. The 
permanence of the marriage tie is fully recognized, 
though fidelity is a feminine virtue. The woman 
after marriage drops her given name and is known 
as the wife of so and so or the mother of so and so. 
Her husband addresses her as "Yabu," meaning 

122 A Crusade of Compassion 

"Look here," which is significant of her relations to 
him. Silence is regarded as a wife*s first duty. Wives 
among the common people, who are insubordinate, 
are reduced to order by a good beating, but in the 
noble class custom forbids a husband to strike his 

The seclusion of girls in the parental house is 
carried on after marriage and in the case of women 
in the upper and middle classes is as complete as 
possible. They never go out by daylight except in 
completely closed chairs, carried by coolies. 

Perpetual widowhood is not exacted as in India, 
yet remarriage is considered improper in the upper 
classes and grave social disorders arise if the widow 
does not becomingly weep for the deceased and wear 
mourning all her days. It often happens that young 
widows commit suicide in order to prove fidelity and 
secure honor and reputation beyond the taint of 

"Domestic life as we know it is unknown," writes 
Mrs. Bishop. "The women in the inner rooms receive 
female visitors and the girl children are present. The 
boys at a very early age are removed to the men's 
apartments where they learn from the conversation 
that every man who respects himself must regard 
women with contempt." 

^. Native Treatment of Disease 

We have already seen the predominant place given 
to the Sorceress and to the Exorcist in the native 
treatment of disease in Korea. The invisible spirit 
of smallpox is ever present to be propitiated and 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 123 

these acts of propitiation play a large part in domes- 
tic life, as death from this disease was formerly about 
equal to the birth rate. The Korean puts smallpox 
in the forefront of all the ills that flesh is heir to. It 
is said that he does not count his children until they 
have had it. It is more feared even than cholera. 
From the fifth day after the appearance of the dis- 
ease, no member of the household may comb his 
hair, or wear new clothes, or sweep the house, or 
bring any new goods within the doors, cut wood, 
drive nails, roast beans, or allow a drain to be blocked 
up. Any one of these would leave the patient blind 
or seriously marked. The thirteenth day is the one 
on which the spirit is supposed to depart. On that 
day the Mu-dang comes and goes through an elabo- 
rate ceremony in which she petitions the spirit to 
deal kindly with the patient and not to leave it 

In treating cases of cholera a pair of telescope 
baskets is used; this disease is supposed to result 
from rats climbing about in the human interior. The 
scratching sound made by a peculiar use of the 
baskets which resembles the noise made by cats is 
expected to drive away these rodents. Leprosy, 
typhoid, tuberculosis and diseases which are common 
with us are found, for the most part, untreated. 
Baths are infrequent. The air is often polluted 
by the corpses of the dead lying unburied until 
the Sorceress shall appoint a propitious time and 
place for burial. The worst sufferings are caused 
by the ignorant practices of native physicians. Many 
native Korean lady physicians administer powdered 
tiger claws, tincture of bear's gall, or decoction of 


124 A Crusade of Compassion 

crow*s feet. The steel needle is the unnecessai^' 
cause of many blind eyes, and the burning of the 
body with powder or hot metal to let the demon out 
has caused many scars on innocent, helpless bodies. 
If the light that is in them be darkness, how great 
is that darkness. || 

When a woman is taken sick, not only is she in 
trouble but domestic affairs generally are deranged. 
In the minds of all, this sickness is caused by malig- 
nant demons and the people live in constant terror 
of offending these spirits whose name is legion. 

5. Christ comes to Korea flRI 

In the year 1883 Korea, the Hermit nation, was 
opened to the outside world by treaty. The single 
word Korea cabled to Shanghai, early in 1884, de- 
clared that the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Mis- 1 1 
sions was ready to begin the work of Christ in this 
unknown field. "This cablegram was the first voice 
from Protestant Christendom to molest the age-old 1 1 
heathenism of Korea. It was destined to wake the 
echoes from end to end of the kingdom." For at 
Shanghai were waiting Dr. Allen, a young physician, 
and his wife, ready for the word of command to 
start upon the great adventure in Korea. 

Soon after the arrival in Seoul of these mission- 
aries anti-foreign riots broke out, on the occasion of 
the opening of the first Korean post office, December, 
1884. In the days of violence which followed many 
persons were wounded. With the exception of the 
medical missionary and his wife, every foreigner fled 
the city. Intrepid, fearless, Dr. Allen stood his 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 125 

ground. "I came to do just such work," he said. 
"I can't leave these wounded people. We shall live 
in the Legation with the old flag flying and trust 
the kind Father to care for us." 

The missionary boldly made his way to the palace 
and offered his help to the nephew of the King who, 
under his ministrations, recovered from severe 
wounds. At once Dr. Allen became the most popular 
man in Seoul, with the King himself his friend, and 
a government hospital under royal patronage opened 
February, 1885, with the missionary in full charge. 
Within the first year ten thousand patients were 
treated. Thus did the Battalion of Life take posses- 
sion of Cho-sen in the Name of the King. The hospi- 
tal so founded is now merged in the famous Sever- 
ance Union Hospital, largest and best-equipped in 
the country. 

Doctor to the "^'Df. Scranton, sent by the Methodist 
Queen. Board, arrived in Korea in May, 

1885, ^^^ ^ y^^^ 1^^^^ ^^ss EUers, a medical student 
and trained nurse under appointment by the Presby- 
terian Board, won such favor with the Korean Queen 
that she appointed her royal physician. ! To Miss 
EUers belongs the honor of being the fifst medical 
woman to enter the new field. The demand for 
women physicians, in view of the seclusion of upper 
and middle class women, becoming imperative, Dr. 
Allen and Dr. Scranton sent a plea to America which 
brought ready response. In 1887, the first fully 
quaUfied woman physician arrived in Cho-sen in the 
person of Miss Meta Howard, M.D. She opened in 
Seoul, in 1888, the first hospital for women in the 
country. The King showed his approval by sending 

126 A Crusade of Compassion 


a name, Po Ku Nyo Kwan, meaning "Saving all 
women Hospital," painted in the royal colors, 
framed and ready to hang over the gate. Other 
women followed, being cordially received by the 
Government as well as by the women, who came in 
closed chairs or veiled in their green coats. Dr. 
Rosetta Sherwood arrived in Korea in 1890, and took 
up the work laid down through broken health by 
Dr. Howard. She established the first dispensary 
for women in the interior of Cho-sen. She was fol- 
lowed, 1893, by Dr. Cutler, and the closing year of 
the decade following the coming of Dr. Howard 
was marked by the arrival of seven missionary 
women physicians. 

Such, in briefest outline, were the initial steps in 
the establishment of women's medical work for 
women in Korea. At Seoul and at Pyeng Yang are 
hospitals exclusively for women maintained by the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and there are women 
physicians on the staff of several of the twenty or 
more mission hospitals. 

Pentecost The story of Protestant missions in 

in Korea. Korea is less than thirty-five years 

old, but, unlike the story in India and China, evan- 
gelistic and medical missions developed together, — 
the word of life and the touch of healing cooperat- 
ing all the way. We may reasonably ask our- 
selves whether this fact is not a factor, a potent 
factor, in the unprecedented power with which the 
Gospel has made its way into the hearts and lives 
of these Koreans. Let us grasp clearly the outstand- 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 127 

ing points and turning points in the wonderful 
spread of the Evangel. 

Dates to In 1 884 the seed was first sown. A 

remember. decade of silent, imperceptible growth 

followed, at the end of which there were only one 
hundred and forty Christians in Korea. 

In 1894 there was war between China and Japan. 
Korea was the battleground and like Belgium, in 
the present decade, it suffered terrible devastation. 
The missionaries, in the main medical men and 
women, stood by the people unflinchingly through 
peril, pestilence, and pain. Hundreds of lives were 
saved by their devotion and the hearts of the people 
were deeply touched. "How these foreigners love 
us! Would we do as much for one of our own kin 
as they do for strangers?" became the common 
question. Since the Jesus man had thus proved him- 
self their best friend, his religion must be true, divine. 

A Pentecostal revival of Christian religion began 
then in Korea and has continued from that time, 
although 1907 was the year of high tide. In 1910 it 
was said that there had been an average of one 
convert an hour for every hour of the day since 
the first missionaries set foot upon Korean soil. 
All sectarian lines were swept away. The Koreans 
were simply primitive Christians, not Methodists 
or Presbyterians. Most significant is the fact that, 
from the first, the awakening in Korea has been, 
not a reaching out for Western education and 
progress, but purely a desire for the religion of 
Jesus Christ. Almost it can be said that a nation 
has been born in a day. 

128 A Crusade of Compassion 


; "I wish I could tell you how these people change 
/ when the Spirit of God comes into their hearts," 
/ says Dr. Brown. "You can usually recognize a 
Korean Christian upon the street by the unmis- 
takable evidences of cleanliness and a new hope, 

A visit to Korea is a tonic to faith^ 

In reviewing the story of Christ's work in Korea, 
curiously pathetic in its humility, its patience of 
hope, its quiet heroism, two figures stand out as 
types and symbols; the American physician, Rosetta 
Sherwood Hall, and her devoted pupil, the beloved 
Korean physician, Esther Kim Pak. We shall be- 
come better acquainted with the latter in Chapter 
VI. In the year 1890, Dr. Rosetta Sherwood, a 
graduate of the Woman's Medical College of Penn- 
sylvania, arrived in Seoul to take up the work of 
the Woman's Hospital and Dispensary, the first in 
Korea, started by Dr. Meta Howard. The latter 
had been obliged by ill health to leave Korea during 
the preceding year. Dr. Sherwood's marriage to Dr. 
James Hall of the Korean mission took place in 
1892, but soon after they were happily settled in 
their home in Seoul the husband was called upon to 
depart for the city of Pyeng Yang nearly one hun- 
dred and eighty miles north, while his wife stayed 
at her post in the Woman's Hospital. Here the 
young Korean girl, Esther, was at once her pupil 
and interpreter. In 1893, the Doctor began work at 
Chemulpo among native women, under her influence 
whole families being won for Christ. In 1894, after 
the great battle of Pyeng Yang was fought between 
the Chinese and Japanese, Dr. James Hall, having 


Korea, the Philippines and Siam 129 

contracted typhus fever while laboring for the Korean 
war refugees, returned home to die. His widow, tak- 
ing with her her two children and the young Korean, 
Esther Kim Pak, whom she hoped to have educated 
for a physician, returned to the United States. In 
her two years at home Dr. Hall devoted herself to 
study of methods for teaching the blind and upon 
her return to Seoul, in 1897, the system was per- 
fected, the "New York point" for the blind being 
adapted to the Korean alphabet. She had embossed 
the first books before the apparatus arrived from 
New York. The aim of the school is to fit its 
members, as rapidly as possible, to share, as is 
right, in the educational privileges afforded their 
seeing and hearing brothers and sisters, that together 
they may earn a livelihood and discharge their duties 
as loyal and good citizens of the Government General 
of Cho-sen and of the Kingdom of Heaven, to both of 
which they belong. The exhibit made by this Blind 
and Deaf Department received a handsome silver 
medal from the great industrial exhibition at Seoul. 

On the occasion of the Emperor's birthday. Dr. 
Hall was presented with a nest of silver cups and a 
certificate for meritorious service in official recogni- 
tion of her twenty-five years of work in Korea. A 
literal translation of the certificate is as follows: 

From early time you have done not a few noble deeds in 
regard to education and benevolence and you are, indeed, a 
good example to the people. Accordingly the Governor General 
of Cho-sen awards one set of silver cups to you as a token of 
its appreciation, 31st of October, fourth year of Taisho. 

Count Terauchi , 
The Governor General of Cho-sen. 

130 A Crusade of Compassion 

This was the first time that a missionary in Korea, 
man or woman, had been thus honored by the 

The Chinese vice-consul, Chang, of Chemulpo, 
wrote to Dr. Hall in his congratulatory letter that 
he wished her to succeed upon success, perhaps the 
most difficult task. Before leaving on furlough Dr. 
Hall was granted an audience with his Excellency 
Count Terauchi, the Premier of the Japanese Em- 
pire, at his official residence in Tokio. A brief extract 
officially translated reveals the attitude of this high 
power in Japan towards Korean women physicians. 

His Excellency, Count Terauchi, is very pleased and satisfied 
to learn that your Korean girls, three in number, have graduated 
from the government medical school, and are given license to 
practice medicine without further examination. They will, 
undoubtedly, not spare their noble efforts for Korean women 
and children. Their future success is most sincerely hoped for. 
The people will be happy when many girls follow their example. 

Dr. R. Ikebe, 

Private Secretary. 

The following well-deserved expressions are added 
to show the official attitude of those in authority at 
home toward the service of Dr. Hall and of Korean 
medical women in general. Mrs. John M. Cornell, 
Honorary Corresponding Secretary of the New York 
Branch of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, wrote Dr. Hall 
as she returned on furlough: 

I want to sing a doxology with you concerning those three 
medical graduates with their license to practice already ob- 
tained. It surely is worth all the life, energy, prayer and fight 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 131 

that you have given to accomplish this splendid end. As the list 
grows it seems wonderful. A dozen more already in medical 
school, a dozen or more preparing, two studying pharmacy, one 
dentistry, and scores of nurses, actual and preparing. I do not 
wonder that you come home with a happy heart. You have 
worked so hard for just this result. May God grant great in- 
crease to these years of effort! He knows Korea's need for women 
workers far better than can any one of the rest of us. He will 
show you and others how to meet the need financially. 


**Here is a nation ready to be led to Christ.'* 

Bishop H. C. Stuntz. 

^^ , . , The group of islands comprising the 

X he flrcniDelaso. ... • 

Philippine Archipelago number three 
thousand four hundred and forty-one, one thousand 
six hundred and sixty-eight of which are listed by 
name; the others are mere islets. If the map were 
laid over the United States the islands would extend 
north and south from Lake Superior to the Gulf of 
Mexico, east and west a distance a little greater than 
that from Philadelphia to Indianapolis. Two of the 
islands are about the size of Pennsylvania, four are 
about the size of Connecticut, and two about the 
size of Rhode Island. 

Population, 'The population in 1914 was nine 

language. million. There are thirty-five lan- 

guages, nearly a dozen dialects, and sixty-nine sorts 
of people with heterogeneity raised to its highest 

There are two main classes of people, 

the aboriginals and the invaders, or 

as they are now called, the non-Christian and the 

132 A Crusade of Compassion 

Christianized. Among the latter the type is pre- 
dominantly Malayan. The only other race really 
modifying it is the Negrito. Previous to the Spanish 
conquest these two were the only ethnic sources of 
the Filipino population. Among the upper and 
wealthier classes, but embracing but a comparatively 
small number of individuals out of the entire popu- 
lation, are those having Spanish and Chinese blood 
in their veins. 


/. Where Two Streams meet: Orient 

and Occident ^ 

When the Portuguese discoverers and conquerors 
reached southeastern Asia, they found a race which 
called itself Malayan and which in general adhered 
to the Moslem faith. The Spanish soldiers and mis- 
sionaries followed with all the hatred for Islam 
engendered by combating that religion for eight 
hundred years in Africa and Spain. The Chinese 
brought the Buddhistic strain and the mingling of 
the social customs and religions of these peoples has 
left extraordinary problems. 

The ancient religion of the Filipino, known 
throughout the islands, had no sacred book, but 
consisted of the anitos. These were not gods, they 
were the souls of the ancestors. Nature spirits, too, 
were revered; indeed, there was nothing which might 
not be worshipped. Nine hundred of the gods of 
the early Filipinos have been counted. They believed 
that there was one great god called by various names 
and the rainbow was thought to be his home. It was 
considered a sin even to point to the rainbow. Old 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 133 

women acted as priestesses and directed the cere- 
monies at marriages and at funerals and tried to 
cure the sick. "When a noble died it was the custom 
to sacrifice a number of slaves in order that in the 
next life the noble should have a suitable retinue 
according to the importance of the position he held 
while alive. Among some tribes the custom ob- 
tained of burying slaves alive." 

The Occidental stream of invaders which began 
with the Spanish ended with the American. There 
are seven main racial and linguistic subdivisions of 
the typical Filipino to be found in the Islands and 
between them exists more or less suspicion, if not 
actual distrust and dislike. 
„ . , , There are three classes of society: 

Soaal orders. , . , . , . 1 r 

the superior, which is composed or 
the wealthy families of position, the middle class or 
working people, and the dependents. They are not 
hedged about by any such caste laws as prevail in 
India, though there is a strong line of cleavage be- 
tween them. 

Spanish The Spanish occupation and exploita- 

Catholic. tion of the Philippines began in the 

first half of the sixteenth century. The Occidental 
stream which has been flowing in uninterruptedly 
ever since has had abundance of time to reveal its 
own character and influence, fruit by which the 
tree may be known. But here, as in other countries 
where this influence has predominated, dungeons 
and scaffolds, closed Bibles and ignorance speak 
eloquently. — -j 

Priests and Reformation must be exceedingly / 

Friars. difficult. 



134 A Crusade of Compassion 

The priests and the friars have both been at work during 
the years of the Spanish regime and some of the priests have 
accomplished an immense amount of good. . . . While it is by 
no means true that all of the friars are incompetent or depraved 
it is, nevertheless, a fact that many of them are ignorant beyond 
belief; are given over to open and brutal licentiousness; practice 
inhuman extortion, especially with the solemnization of marriage 
and the burial of the dead; interfere with the execution of the 
laws and themselves openly violate them when it serves their 
ends to do so. The inevitable demoralization of the communi- 
ties which they control has produced a large class which has 
suffered at the hands of the friars wrongs that it is not human 
to forget. (Stuntz.) 

2, Characteristics of the Filipinos 

Writers differ largely in their opinion as to the 
outstanding characteristics of the people. The indi- 
vidual experience of the writer colors the picture and 
it is never safe to generalize. The following quota- 
tion from Professor Worcester is of value as express- 
ing his own opinion as well as that of a Britisli 
Consul of Manila: "Rarely is an intratropical people 
satisfactory to eye or mind, but this cannot be said 
of the Filipino Malay. In bodily formation and 
mental characteristics alike he may fairly claim 
place, not among the middling ones, but among the 
higher names inscribed on the world*s national 

The Filipino Spanish civilization found the Fili- 
woman. pi^a woman, as among the Malays, 

a burden-bearer or a toy. It leaves her the most 
emancipated woman in Asia. An editorial of the 
Manila Bulletin says: "The Filipino woman is 
unique among the women of the East in that she is 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 135 

free of foot and face and waist, and stands up and 
looks straight ahead without fear or confusion." 

In this fundamental difference in the social posi- 
tion of woman lies the ground for an abundance of 
hope for the future Filipino. Her women are modest 
in demeanor, vivacious in spirit, passionately fond 
of music, given to hospitality; they have large imita- 
tiveness and adaptation and their family affection 
is strong. 

School teachers are unanimous in their opinion 
of Filipino children. They are docile, quick, mentally 
alert and have an aptitude for acquiring language. 
They possess a natural talent for the lesser mechan- 
ical arts such as drawing and writing. There is no 
doubt that they excel American children in docility, , 
imitativeness, and attentiveness. They lack the I 
American child*s persistency and originality. .: 

J. The American Invasion: Political^ 
Religious^ Scientific 

With the American invasion, 1898, came the 
desired opportunity for the Filipino. Spanish Cathol- 
icism not only stood athwart the path of progress, 
but kept a closed Bible. With the arrival of Protes- 
tant Christianity came both Religion and Science. 
Shiploads of teachers were among the early arrivals. 
The Census for 1902 reports one hundred and seven- 
ty thousand children in primary schools. Under the 
new influences this number has increased to more 
than half a million. The changes between the before 
and after are interesting and numerous. 

136 A Crusade of Compassion 


/ ,^ „ , The secret of the greatest change lies 

I The open Book. . , ^ ri t-»'iit' 

I in the fact or the open Bible. It is 

gratifying to know of the confidence which great 
leaders repose in the value of this book. With the 
open Bible and the school house came the hospital. 
The Census of 1902 reported as many as seventy 
public hospitals in the islands, the whole number 
of which reported an attendance of only eleven thou- 
sand five hundred and fifty-eight patients. The 
reasons assigned for this small attendance are the 
expense of maintenance and the prejudice against 
having the sick cared for away from the family. The 
latter reason is not borne out by the experience of 
later years. Before the American occupation, thou- 
sands upon thousands were perishing every year for 
lack of common care. Wounds were covered with 
chewed tobacco, ashes, and leaves. 

Cholera was believed to be caused by a peculiar 
black dog appearing on the street or by a poison put 
into wells by Spaniards or foreigners. Cemeteries 
were not infrequently situated near the supplies of 
drinking water and conditions within their walls 
were often shocking. Malaria was common and the 
stuff on sale called quinine was plaster of Paris or 
corn starch. Smallpox was generally regarded as a 
necessary ailment of childhood. It was necessary to 
forbid by legislation the deliberate communication 
of it as was commonly done, because it was thought 
best to have it and be over with it. Children playing 
with other children were seen to be covered with the 
eruption. Clothing from people who had died with 
it was handed down unwashed to other members 
of the family. The victims often immersed them- 




























Korea, the Philippines and Siam 137 

selves in cold water when their fever was high and 
paid the penalty for their ignorance with their lives. 
Over ten million vaccinations have been made with 
the result that while previously the annual deaths 
were about forty thousand, in 19 13 there were 
seven hundred. There is now^less smallpox in Manila 
than there is in Washington. 
. . The civil government inherited a 

well-developed epidemic of bubonic 
plague. The results of sanitary measures are indi- 
cated by the fact that while in 1901 there were 
four hundred and twenty-seven deaths from this 
disease there were no cases reported from 1907 to 
^- , When an epidemic of cholera broke 

Cholera. 1 1 • • 1 

out and an educative campaign with 
quarantine regulations was begun, a feeling of bitter 
hostility was created toward the Board of Health 
among the native people. Results in the end over- 
bore opposition; from eighteen thousand eight hun- 
dred and eleven deaths from cholera in 1908 the 
report fell to two hundred and three in 191 1 and 
none at all in 191 2. 

An educational campaign with amazing results 
combined to nullify the superstitious practices former- 
ly carried on by the Filipinos, and it is now possible 
safely to count on sufficient co-operation from the 
people to make an effective campaign possible when 
next it appears. 

jj This disease, which killed thousands 

annually, has been reduced to a 

negligible minimum by simple hygienic measures 

and a pure water supply. The drinking supply of 

138 A Crusade of Compassion 

many provincial towns has been gradually improved 
by the sinking of artesian wells resulting in a re- 
duction of the death rate by more than fifty per 
cent. Bishop Oldham writes of seeing an enthusi- 
astic Filipino when first an artesian well shot up a 
stream of deliciously cold water, four-inches thick 
and several feet above the ground. First testing the 
water he stood up and said, "Ah! these Americans! 
They bring fire out of the sky and water out of the 
bowels of the earth ! They have done more for us in 
ten years than Spain would have done in a thou- 

Benefit of ^^ ^^^ outset malaria was killing as 

the Western many people as smallpox. Calapan, 

methods. ^Yie capital of Mindoro, was in Span- 

ish days known as the white man*s grave on account 
of the prevalence of pernicious fever there. Today 
it is an exceptionally healthy town. Old jails have 
been rendered sanitary. At Balibio, the annual 
deaths in 1905 were two hundred and forty-one and 
fifteen per cent, per thousand. In six months the 
rate was reduced to seventy per thousand. Careful 
research revealed the hook worm as the cause, along j 
with other intestinal parasites and the death rate! 
dropped to thirteen per thousand. 

At first foreign medical men working in the 
Far East good naturedly ridiculed all attempts by 
United States' authorities to make better conditions, 
claiming that in tropical countries it was customary 
to take only such steps as would safeguard the 
health of the European residents. They assured us 
that it was really best to let the masses live as they 
would, since Orientals were incapable of sanitary 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 139 

reform. At first, efforts to eliminate Asiatic cholera, 
leprosy, and plague were viewed with amusement 
not unmixed with contempt; but the results ob- 
tained soon aroused lively interest. Foreign govern- 
ments began to send representatives to the annual 
meeting of the Philippine Island Medical Associa- 
tion. Later it became the Far Eastern Association 
of Tropical Medicine, the biennial meetings of 
which bring together the most experienced, skilful, 
and widely known physicians and sanitarians of the 
East, for an interchange of views and experiences 
which is invaluable. 

A great general hospital has been established. 
By its side stands a modern, up-to-date college of 
medicine and surgery. These have been incorporated 
with the University of the Philippines and members 
serve interchangeably. 

4, Medical Missions in the Islands 

Where among all needy peoples may the Christian 
women of America have larger scope or a more 
interesting work than in helping the Filipina woman 
to help her own people and the people of the neigh- 
boring countries? Among the un-Christianized Fili- 
pinos the same attitude toward women is found as 
among the Mohammedans and followers of other 
Oriental religions, the same inbred fear of demons 
and spirits, the same low value of human life, the 
same ignorance and hopelessness which we have 
found in other countries. Abundant opportunity is 
offered of accomplishing great things for the uplift 
of these people. What has been done by the Govern- 

140 A Crusade of Compassion 

ment can also be intensified through the influence 
of Christian women. Bishop Oldham says that "the 
women of America need not hesitate to make large 
investments in the Filipina. She will more than 
repay all the care and love that may be extended 
.... educated young women move freely among 
the homes of the people without excessive chaper- 
onage; single women, when they are modest and 
tactful, are as freely welcomed to the homes as any. 
No such freedom as hers is found in Asia." 

Within three months from that May Sunday in 
1898, when Commodore Dewey broke the Spanish 
fleet and entered Manila Bay, Protestant missionary 
representatives were on the spot. As a consequence 
of consultation held by this advance guard of the 
Army of Christ, missionary work was begun in the 
following spring under Methodist and Presbyterian 
auspices. In January, 1900, Dr. J. Andrew Hall 
began medical and evangelistic work at Iloilo on 
the island of Panay. The hospital opened by Dr. 
Hall is now the Union Missionary Hospital, jointly 
sustained by the Presbyterian and Baptist Boards. 
Associated with this hospital is a nurses' training 
school begun by Dr. Hall and the first of its order 
in the Islands. 

At Manila notable work is carried on by St. 
Luke's Hospital, connected with Bishop Brent's 
Mission (Protestant Episcopal) and by the Mary J. 
Johnston Memorial Hospital for women and children, 
established in 1906 by the Woman's Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Thirty-three per cent, of Filipino 
babies die before completing the 


Korea, the Philippines and Siam 141 

first year of life. The causes which lead to this 
appalling result are being carefully investigated. 
Popular interest has been aroused, but many years 
of patient work may be necessary before anything 
approaching satisfactory results may be brought 
about. It cannot all be charged to climate. It is a 
well-known fact that a large number of the Filipina 
women are unable to nurse their children. As a 
result, the children begin to eat solid food long before 
they can digest it, and cholera infantum or con- 
vulsions end their lives. It is not difficult to predict 
the result when babies three or four months old 
are fed rice, bananas, and mangoes as a regular 
diet. Dr. Parish in the Mary J. Johnston Hospital 
has made the slogan for her hospital "better babies." 
Since 1907, two thousand eight hundred and nine 
babies have first opened their eyes on life in the 
hospital. Of the need for such work, she writes in 
the last annual report: 

There are no words to describe the terrible suffering and 
need among the children; one good thing about the very little 
and young ones, they can at least die; but the larger children 
undergo the most terrible diseases and distress, and many times 
live on and on when there is no hope and nothing in life, appar- 
ently, to live for. Dreadful accidents occur, injuries and sick- 
nesses, most of which could be prevented, are all too common 
.... We see many mothers trying their best to do well by 
their growing children, so we are not by any means discouraged, 
but rather are we spurred on to work and teach until Filipina 
motherhood saves Filipino childhood. 

A visitor, Mrs. Norma W. Thomas, describing 
this hospital, says, "There are kindergarten and 
sewing classes; I never knew that a hospital did so 


142 A Crusade of Compassion 

many things, but Dr. Parish says she is trying to 

make hers a sort of social settlement for the poor 

neighborhood around it. . . . Last year there was 

a beautiful Christmas tree on the hospital lawn and 

six hundred little children were there to see and 

enjoy it." 

Several hospitals under missionary auspices might 

be. enumerated, notably those sustained at Manila 

and Vigan by the Christian Mission, and that opened 

in 1908 by the American Board at Davao on the 

Island of Mindanao, but as there are no distinctively 

women's missionary hospitals, aside from the Mary 

J. Johnston Memorial, in the Islands extended study 

does not come within our limits. 

^. . An interesting extension of medical ,, 

Dispensanes. , i.. ° i*r i* 1 Jl 

and religious work is round in the II 

establishment of dispensaries in various centres^ 

under the care of a nurse and a Bible woman. The 

people of the towns have contributed generously to 1 1 

the building and support of these dispensaries and 

eagerly welcome the clinic and the attention given 

in the homes. The doctor pays a weekly visit and 

looks after those who are seriously ill. There are 

plans for a new school dispensary near the high 

school in Iloilo where already Dr. R. Thomas has large 

first-aid classes among the students, who number 

fourteen hundred and come from all parts of the 


In illustration of the dual service, to body and 

soul, performed by our Christian hospitals we quote 

from a letter of Dr. Thomas, of the Union Hospital 

at Iloilo, under date August 19, 191 8. 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 143 

August 19, 191 8. We are rejoicing at the Hospital, because' 
a large number of our nurses have taken a stand for Christ. 
There are nearly thirty and we thought that a fairly large 
number were Protestant considering the fact that these girls 
come from Romanist homes and some have been with us but 
a short time. But there were about twelve who had not openly 
confessed Christ or at least that had not joined the church. 
During the past week those who had already given evidence of 
loyalty to the Lord and several others who had not been so 
apparently interested signified their desire to take a stand now 
and we met seven of them and found them ready. One was not 
at this meeting, but she had already been talked with. This left 
only four at present in the school who were not members or 
openly confessed Christians. At the regular Bible class Sunday 
night, in an impressive meeting, two of those raised their hands, 
— and as one of the other two already has expressed her desire 
to join the church, and is being kept back by her mother, we 
may say that all but one have now taken a stand. These two 
who raised their hands last night are opposed by relatives, and 
they may have to wait before actually joining, but they are 
converts and may be counted as ready to serve with the rest. 
The one girl remaining we hope will be reached soon. 

It is with great joy that we are now able to present almost 
a united front in our religious work in the Hospital. We are 
planning to have a normal class for leaders of personal work 
classes, and to do definite, purposeful, evangelistic work at the 
bedside. When this is organized we plan to follow up the work 
done in the Hospital by sending cards to the pastors in the 
districts to which outgoing patients will return after illness, in 
order to have them look them up. This will enable us to help 
the district churches. We are aware that all such organized 
evangelistic work is likely to become too mechanical if one is 
not careful, but forewarned is forearmed, evangelistic work is 
likely to be too haphazard. There can be no more propitious 
place to reach the hearts of men than in a hospital where they 
are being kindly treated. 

J44 A Crusade of Compassion 



"Your missionaries first brought civilization to our country." 

Siamese Prince. 

Hemmed in between Burma, which belongs to 
British India, and French Indo-China, lies the small 
Kingdom of Siam, its territory about equal to that 
of Korea and Japan combined, its population esti- 
mated as half that of Korea, viz., about six millions. 
There is in all Indo-China but one Protestant Mis- 
sion, that of the Christian and Missionary Alliance; 
in Siam the Presbyterian Mission today holds the 
field, practically alone. 

/. Obstacles to Missionary Work 

This irregular peninsula, counterweight to India, 
the two constituting the double pendant of Southern 
Asia, seems never to have offered a fertile soil for 
the spread of Christianity. Siam is ancient mission- 
ary ground. Protestant missions there date back 
to the days of the Judsons when the English Bap- 
tist Mission press in Serampore printed a Christian 
catechism in Siamese (1819). A little later, in an-- 
swer to the appeal of the famous Dr. Gutzlaff of 
the Netherland Missionary Society, the American 
Board sent out Rev. David Abeel, and later Messrs. 
Johnson and Robinson, who founded a mission in 
Bangkok in 1834. This was reinforced by Dr. Daniel 
B. Bradley, distinguished preacher and physician, 
and a score of other faithful workers. The work was 
finally abandoned, as was that of the American 
Baptist Missionary Union, begun in 1853. The con- 


Korea, the Philippines and Siam 145 

trolling reason for the withdrawal of these two 
agencies was that the Siamese people showed little 
disposition to receive Christianity, and that, as the 
chief results of missionary work were among the 
Chinese, it appeared wiser to turn to China itself. 
Siamese soil Many reasons, political as well as 

unreceptive. racial, have combined to render the 

native Siamese unresponsive to the labors of 
Protestant missionaries. As national pride re- 
strains the Japanese from adopting the religion 
of Christ, and as ancestor worship in China and 
caste in India are formidable barriers, so in Siam 
is found an all-pervading hostile influence to the 
Cross, subtle but impervious; it is the indifl^erence, 
apathy, languor of the tropics, approaching, it 
might for a time seem, a lack of spiritual capacity. 
A decadent, idolatrous Buddhism, strongly en- 
trenched in the common life and custom of the 
people, has constituted in itself a stubborn obstacle 
to the entrance of new and spiritual conceptions. 
Encourage- As an offset to these discouraging 

nients. conditions the missionary finds among 

the Siamese and Lao (the people of Northern Siam) 
no caste, no ancestral worship, no child marriage, 
no seclusion of women. 

In no other country of Asia, except Korea, says Dr. Brown,* 
are Protestant missionaries regarded with greater friendliness 
by people of all ranks. Their lives and property are as safe as if 
they were under British rule in India. Princes and nobles are 
their friends. Men trained in the universities of Europe ask them 
questions. Missionary educators teach the sons of governors, 

* See The Nearer and the Farther East^ by S. M. Zwemer and A. J. 
Brown, United Study Series, Macmillan, 1908. 


146 A Crusade of Compassion 

judges and high commissioners; and missionary physicians are 
called into the homes of the proudest officials. 

Survival of the ^e have noted that today the mis- 
Presbyterian sionaries of the Presbyterian Board 
mission. alone are at work for the Siamese 
people. Their persistence in face of bitter suffering 
and discouragement is meeting its di\e reward, and 
they are entering into the fruits of the labors of 
their brethren of other communions but like faith, 
for we may firmly believe that no effort made in 
the Name above every name has been lost. 

Permanent work was established by the Presby- 
terian Board in Bangkok in 1849 ^7 ^^^ mission- 
aries, the Rev. S. Mattoon and Dr. S. R. House. The 
latter continued in active service for twenty-nine 
years. As Dr. Bradley remained at his post after 
the withdrawal of its missionaries by the American 
Board in 1849, ^^^ continued his work until his 
death at Bangkok in 1873, ^^ ^^^ fairly be said of 
Siam as of Korea, that Christian work of perma- 
nence there has, from the first, been medical as well 
as evangelistic. ^. 

Apostles of t)r. Bradley was a man of varied and 

Christian unusual gifts and made a deep im- 

aviiization. pression upon the Siamese, as did 

his co-worker, the Rev. Jesse Caswell. The latter, 
chosen by Siam's king as tutor to his son and heir, 
inculcated in the youth (who became the truly 
enlightened and progressive King Mongkut) the 
principles which have opened the land to civiliza- 
tion. Dr. Bradley in the year 1836 introduced the 
printing press and in 1840 met the terrible national 
scourge of smallpox by the introduction of vaccination. 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 147 

2, Results of Medical Missions 

During the first critical years of the Mission, the 
medical work was the chief means of allaying the 
natural prejudices against the foreigners and gaining 
toleration from the old king. His son, who came to 
the throne in 1868, was educated under missionary 
influence, and desired to obtain for his people the 
benefits of scientific medical practice. In this en- 
deavor the American missionary physicians were 
his trusted advisers. With their aid, he established 
in Bangkok hospitals for the army and navy, two 
general hospitals, an insane asylum and a Royal 
School of Medicine. All the mission hospitals were 
indebted to him for generous gifts of land and 
buildings. The present king, who was educated in 
England, continues his father's liberal policy. With 
the gradual increase of intelligence the new genera- 
tion has come to recognize, to some extent, the 
efficiency of modern methods and especially the 
benefit of surgical skill. But the spread of Western 
ideas is confined as yet to a very narrow circle, and 
the masses of the people, both in city and country, 
are content to live and die in the unsanitary tradi- 
tions of their forefathers. 

Medical work has been in truth the missionary 
magnet from the first. In 1884 a hospital, founded 
by the Mission at Petchaburi, was enlarged by the 
reigning King and somewhat later a women's ward 
added by the Queen. Since then, five mission hos- 
pitals and an equal number of dispensaries have 
been established, all performing beneficent work, 
all self-supporting. A free hand has been given the 

148 A Crusade of Compassion 

missionary physicians in their Christian propaganda 
by King, Queen, and Government; missionary women 
are permitted to enter the royal harem and teach, 
and members of the reigning house say without 
reserve or condition, "The missionaries first brought 
civilization to our country.' y 

Medical work was begun among the Lao in 1875, 
at the important city of Chieng Mai; in 1878, the 
King issued a "Proclamation of Religious Liberty 
for the Lao." The original hospital at Chieng Mai 
was erected by Dr. McGilvary and Dr. Cheek, 
about 1888. In recent years it has been much en- 
larged, and has now in its spacious compound accom- 
modations for at least fifty patients, besides a chapel 
and two physicians' houses. "Since it was practically 
impossible to obtain potent vaccine lymph in the 
North owing to its isolation, in 1904, Dr. McKean, 
who joined this mission in 1890, established a vac- 
cine laboratory and this has supplied lymph to all 
the mission stations and to the Government. A 
large corps of Christian men are employed to travel 
through the province, vaccinating, selling quinine, 
and distributing Gospels and tracts. The small fees 
received pay their expenses and help to support the 
hospital. These men are required to spend three 
days each month at the hospital for instruction, 
and some of them become very skilful in the use of 
simple remedies. They have done excellent work in 
combatting the epidemic of malignant malaria. 

The hospital is greatly blessed in three native 
assistants of long experience. Of the steward and 
head nurse, Dr. McKean says; "His whole life and 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 149 

thought seem given to the service of God. Faithful 
to every duty, constant, kind and unselfish in the 
care of our poor sufferers, I verily believe Ai Keo 
has done more for his own people than any Lao 
man that ever lived." 

The Overbrook Memorial Hospital at Chieng Mai 
was built in 191 2 on modern lines and has wards 
for women and children. In all five hospitals and 
twenty-five dispensaries are sustained by the Mission 
among the Lao. 

While there are no distinctively women's hospitals 
in Siam and, up to the present time, no qualified 
women physicians at work there, a great work for 
the native women and children has been begun; 
upon whom does its development rest if not upon 
ourselves.^ "Behold, I have set before thee an open 


"In all the long procession of the ages there is no more truly tragic 
figure than that of the leper." 

Leprosy is common in every town east of the 
Suez Canal; Siam is no exception, nor are Korea 
and the Philippine Islands. The treatment of lepers 
in these countries and in others by the Battalion of 
Life can best be considered at this point. Through 
the long ages no hand but the hand of the Lord 
Jesus was stretched out to cleanse and to restore 
the leper, and it is only when His disciples enter 
that compassion comes to such as these. They are 
"cast out by all men, forsaken, despised and un- 


150 A. Crusade of Compassion 

clean, and, according to Buddhist teaching, without 
a spark of merit or hope of a better future. Accord- 
ing to Buddhist belief, they are suffering for sins 
committed in a previous state of existence, and 
Buddhism can never be expected to offer them re- 
lief. Such relief must come from us who enjoy the 
blessings of health and home and a Christian civili- 

Leper work From time immemorial the leper in 

in Siam. Buddhistic Siam has been indeed 

[ hated, feared, brutally treated. At Chieng Mai, Dr. 
' McKean of the Presbyterian Hospital, by the grace 
of God, was the means, as the second decade of the 
twentieth century opened, of introducing measures 
of relief and consolation for these children of despair. 

From the admirable sketch of W. M. Danner, 
secretary of the interdenominational society, "The 
Mission to Lepers," we condense the following brief 
account of this typical work: 

Half an island in the river, five miles south of 
Chieng Mai, was the overgrown jungle used as a 
playground for the Governor's pet elephant. His 
father, the late Lao King, had presented him with 
this "Good Luck" elephant when he came of age. 
In spite of the fact that he was a pet, he was a 
wilful, vicious creature. If hungry for rice, he would 
tear down a granary and help himself. He even 
demolished native houses to get baskets of rice he 
knew were there. Unable to endure his raids, the 
people fled, leaving the elephant monarch of all he 

Of course, no one could kill a "Good Luck" 
elephant. But, when the elephant died. Dr. J. W. 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 151 

McKean hastened to ask the late Governor to de- 
vote this island to a higher use; and as a result, 
half the island, one hundred and sixty acres of land, 
was donated, on which to establish the first leper 
asylum in the kingdom; and the gift was confirmed 
by royal authority in Bangkok. 

Even the Siamese began to be interested. One 
Trading Company made a generous* donation of 
teak logs; another merchant furnished the use of 
his elephants for hauling; a friend contributed oflice 
and photographic help; a girls' school in Chieng Mai 
made fifty garments for the use of the first patients. 
Through the aid given by the Mission to Lepers 
and good personal friends in the U. S. A., Dr. Mc- 
Kean joyfully wrote, **0n June 11, 1913, we were 
rejoiced to formally open the Chieng Mai Leper 
Asylum, with one hundred patients.'^ 

The buildings comprise seven brick cottages, each costing 
nearly two thousand dollars and built to accommodate twenty 
persons, with fireplace and sleeping and cooking accommoda- 
tions, and all sanitary, so that by hose and concrete drains the 
house can be thoroughly cleansed. In addition, there is a super- 
intendent's house, a brick water tower, with pumping engine, 
and a temporary thatched chapel. 

Of the one hundred patients in the Asylum on opening day, 
sixty-five were men. The ages vary from twenty to forty years. 
There are five untainted children of leper parents. The dread of 
the disease renders it difficult to place the children in the homes 
of the people, and a home for untainted children has been es- 
tablished on the island, where they are kept free from contagion, 
and are yet near enough to their parents for occasional visits. 

It is known to all that material benefits have come to Siam 
with the advent of the missionary, and they have very greatly 
commended Christianity to the nation. We have a right to hope 
that once the practical benefits of an asylum are seen by the 

152 A Crusade of Compassion 

Siamese, the Government will take up segregation of the leper 
on its own account, and Siam may be the first of Oriental nations 
to rid herself of the scourge. 

In the Asylum family there are lepers from Yunnan and from 
the British Shan States. It is now possible to supply them with 
medicines and an abundance of good food and clothing, so that, 
in spite of their terrible sufferings and their hopeless prospects 
for the future, they are measurably happy. The death rate is 
approximately ten per cent, each year. All bodies of patients 
dying of leprosy are cremated. 

Nine lepers came over the mountains not long ago, traveling 
through uninhabited jungles for thirteen days, destitute of 
money and almost destitute of food. They were a sad and weary 
company when they came to the Asylum gate in the evening, 
so glad to find a place of refuge. Within another month, eight 
more came from the same province, having traveled twelve days. 
A grandmother brought three leper grandchildren a journey of 
ten nights. The fiftieth leper came to the Asylum from a village 
thirteen days distant. It took him a month of travel. There is 
one family of five, all lepers, in the Asylum. 

When the work began at Chieng Mai, Dr. and Mrs. McKean 
committed to God the future of the Asylum and asked all con- 
tributors to its support and all Christian friends everywhere to 
pray that every leper who should ever come to this Asylum 
might become a true child of God. These prayers have been 
answered in a most wonderful manner, for of the two hundred 
and seventy-four lepers who have found refuge there all have 
become Christians except one, who came in a dying condition. 

In 1 914 there was a voluntary contribution by 
the Chieng Mai lepers to the American Bible Society. 
This gift was forwarded to the Bible Society with 
a letter in the following language: "We, the elders 
and members of the Leper Church at Chieng Mai, 
with one heart and mind, have great gladness in 
sending our small offering to the American Bible 
Society, and we beg that our gift of twenty-five 
rupees (J8. 09) may. be graciously received by you 


(By permission of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, 
xMethodist Episcopal Church) 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 153 

and used for the distribution of the Holy Scriptures. 
To have a share in this good work will give us very- 
great happiness. 

''(Signed) Elders — Peang, Toon, Gnok." 
Dr. Robert -E. Speer says: "The morning that we 
were at the Chieng Mai, Siam, Leper Asylum, 
twenty lepers were baptized and welcomed to the 
Lord's table. I think the highest honor I have ever 
had in my life was to be allowed to hold the baptis- 
mal bowl out of which these lepers were baptized. 
I am taking it home as a priceless memorial." 
Leper work in TThe United States Government has 
the PhiUppines. set apart the beautiful island of 
Culion in Manila Bay as a leper colony. There are 
four thousand, four hundred and forty-four acknowl- 
edged lepers in the Philippine Islands; the Culion 
Colony is the largest in the world, numbering thirty- 
seven hundred. While the sufferers are in the main 
Roman Catholics, there has been an appeal for 
Protestant teaching and now regular visits by 
missionaries to Culion are sustained and the devoted 
service of the Bible woman. Sister Juano Coronel 
and the native pastor, Garchalion, have proved of 
marked value. 

The settlement on Culion is not only the largest, 
but the most thoroughly and scientifically organized 
of existing leper colonies. A flourishing town has 
grown up with good roads, water and sewerage 
systems, and comfortable homes. Wholesome occu- 
pation and entertainment are furnished and all 
possible measures are taken to render life tolerable 
to these most afflicted of the race. 

154 A Crusade of Compassion 

Leper work in There are three leper asylums in 
Korea. Korea. Of peculiar interest is the 

origin of that at Kwangju, known as the Kwangju 
Leper Home and presided over by Dr. R. M. Wilson 
of the Southern Presbyterian Mission: A medical 
missionary, Dr. W. H. Forsythe, was riding one 
day toward Kwangju, when he heard a strange 
noise by the roadside. Dismounting, he found in 
the bushes a poor leper woman almost dead. Know- 
ing that she would die if he left her, he put her on 
his own horse and took her to Kwangju. Then this 
modern Good Samaritan realized that no inn would 
receive her, neither could any home. With other 
missionaries, he arranged an unused tile kiln suita- 
bly, and fed and taught this poor creature. She 
welcomed the comfort of the Gospel and accepted 
the Saviour. 

In the meantime, the missionaries among them- 
selves gave funds to build a small three-room house, 
and here five or six other patients who had heard 
of the Christian treatment of a leper were cared 
for. It was now imperative that larger provision 
be made, and through The Mission to Lepers and 
the prayers of friends this Macedonian call was 
answered and the present asylum was created. 

Dr. Wilson, the missionary in charge, says: 

Donors can never regret their gifts, if they stop to think what 
a home like ours means to the lepers. A welcome (the first 
shock), a warm bath (the second shock), clean clothes, a nice 
Korean room, plenty of bedding, food for each meal, the best 
medical treatment for their disease, work to do if able, books to 
read, teaching, the Gospel Story lovingly told, and finally, a 
Christian burial. 

Korea, the Philippines and Siam 155 

November 15, 191 2, was a happy day when we dedicated the 
Kwangju Leper Home to the Lord. On opening day, twenty-one 
half-clad, shivering lepers gathered at our dispensary, and, when 
welcomed to this new home, their worn, haggard faces actually 
changed to happy-looking countenances. At 3 P. M. all the 
missionaries and many native Christians gathered, and with 
songs of praise, prayers of thanksgiving. Scripture readings, and 
addresses, the Kwangju Leper Home was opened in the name 
of Him who said "Cleanse the lepers." 

In concluding the chapter it remains for us to 
broaden our vision and survey for a moment the 
beginnings of work among the lepers of the world, 
with certain impressive illustrations of the Divine 
benediction upon this sacrificial service. 
First leper Christ*s work for lepers through his 

hospital. latter day disciples begins with Wil- 

liam Carey, the founder of modern Protestant 
Missions, who after witnessing, in 181 2, the awful 
sight of the burning alive of a leper at Calcutta was 
instrumental in establishing in that city the first 
known hospital for lepers. In 1822 Moravian 
missionaries began work among the lepers of South 
Africa and in 1867 they consecrated their "Jesus 
Hilfe," the Home for Lepers at Jerusalem. "The 
Mission to Lepers in India and the East" was 
formed by Wellesley C. Bailey, an American Pres- 
byterian in the Punjab, India, in 1874. The title of 
this organization defines its generous scope. Most 
touching is it to read of the first leoer woman to 

156 A Crusade of Compassion 

come for succor to this Mission; she had begged her 
way, traveling to Almora with her two Httle chil- 
dren, ninety miles from the Himalayas. From the 
first, provision was made for the separate care and 
upbringing of untainted children of lepers. 

It should be kept in mind that both Hindu and 
Mohammedan in India regard leprosy as a just 
punishment for unpardonable sin against a God 
whose judgment cannot be turned aside. The leper 
is, therefore, outcast alike from Divine and human 

w k • Id- ^^^ officials of the Society organized 
by Mr. Bailey consider five hundred 
thousand as a conservative estimate of the number 
of lepers in India. One of the oldest, if not the oldest 
asylum is that at Almora, North India, founded by 
the London Missionary Society in 1849. Under the 
Gossner Mission, founded in 1844, a leper asylum 
was opened in 1888 at Purulia, where now the largest 
work of this nature in all British India is conducted. 
Here is found a model village on a tract of fifty 
acres of evergreen woods with many spacious 
dwellings, hospital, dispensaries, and church. One 
who was cared for in this famous institution, and 
who has been characterized as "a leper saint" wrote 
to a distant friend the following letter, impossible 
to read without deep emotion: 

Lady, peace! Your love-heart is so great that it reached this 
leper village — reached this very place. I, being Guoi Aing, have 
received from you a bed's wadded quilt. In coldest weather, 
covered at night, my body will have warmth, will have gladness. 
Alas, the wideness of the world prevents us seeing each other 
face to face, but wait until the last day, when with the Lord 


Korea, the Philippines and Siam 157 

we meet together in heaven's clouds — then, what else can I 
utter, but a whole-hearted mouthful of thanks? You will want 
to know what my body is like — there is no wellness in it. No 
feet, no hands, no sight, no feeling; outside body greatly dis- 
tressed, but inside heart is greatest peace, for the inside heart 
has hopes. What hopes .^ Hopes of everlasting blessedness, be- 
cause of God's love and because of the Saviour's grace. These 
words are from Guoi Aing's mouth. The honorable pencil-person 
is Dian Sister. -^ \ 

Impossible as it is to extend this review of Christ's 
work among lepers, since an entire volume would 
not suffice, let us close with mention of two Chris- 
tian women who have devoted themselves single- 
hearted and single-handed to this labor: Miss Rid- 
dell, an Englishwoman, who in 1895 opened the 
Hospital of the Resurrection of Hope in Kumamoto, 
Japan, for the leprous poor, and Mary Reed, who 
in 1892, on a Himalayan crest, at Chandag, sixty- 
four hundred feet above sea level, presented herself 
to a company of segregated lepers living in huts and 
stables, as having been set apart by the call of God 
within to minister to them. 

The story of Miss Riddell has been recently given 
in a study book* of this series and, therefore, does 
not need repetition here. The story of Mary Reedf 
has long been familiar in its general outlines, but it 
is believed that faith and love and pity will stir to 
quicker life within us, by reading a few passages 
from letters intimately concerning her and reviewing 
thus her ministry of compassion. 

* fVorld Missions and World Peace ^ p. 21 iff. By Caroline Atwater 
Mason, 191 6. 

\Mary Reed^ Missionary to the Lepers y by John Jackson, Fleming H. 
Revell Company. 


158 A Crusade of Compassion 

Early in January, 1892, Mr. Wellesley C. Bailey, 
Secretary and Superintendent of the Mission to 
Lepers in India and the East, received a letter from 
Miss Budden, daughter of the well-known London 
missionary who founded the large leper asylum in 
Almora, which ran as follows: 

I have been expecting to hear from you about the future 
arrangements for Miss Reed, who has come for shelter to Pithora 
as being the only place in the world that would shelter her. You 
will have heard that Miss Reed was for five years in this country 
as a missionary of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and went home in utterly 
broken health. It seems now that this complaint (leprosy), was 
coming on for some time before she left, and for a year after she 
arrived in America it was not suspected. At last the Lord Him- 
self revealed it to her, and at the same time told her that Pithora 
was to be her future home, and that He had much work for her 
to do among those similarly afflicted. She informed the doctors 
of the nature of her complaint, and was sent by her own physi- 
cian to see an expert in New York who confirmed her suspicions, 
and she was hurried out of the country before others were made 
aware of her complaint. She saw doctors in London and in 
Bombay — the doctor of the Leprosy Commission in the latter 
place — and all agreed that there was no doubt about the matter. 

Miss Reed feels that she has had her life call to work among 
these poor creatures, and, I believe, will end her days among 

As a result of this appeal, Mr. Bailey was able to 
appoint Miss Reed to the work to which she had 
dedicated herself. One of Miss Reed's earliest visit- 
ors, the Rev. G. M. Bullock, L.M.S., gives us a 
glimpse of her in her chosen occupation. 

We reached Chandag Heights early on Friday morning and 
found dearMissReed busyin the hospital, tending three patients 


Korea, the Philippines and Siam 159 

in a much advanced stage of leprosy. She was binding up, with 
her own hands, the terrible wounds, and speaking soothing words 
of comfort to these poor distressed ones. It has always been a 
trial to her to witness suffering in others, yet she is most devoted 
in her attentions, and so gentle and kind. We were very much 
surprised and pleased to find her so active and cheerful, and 
looking so well. She told us she had never felt better in health, 
more cheerful in spirits, nor happier in service than she does 
now. . . . [This is] not the result of any medical treatment she 
has adopted, as she gave up all treatment of that sort under a 
strong sense that God only required of her faith in Him and in 
His healing power. 

The Christmas of 1896 brought to the lonely 
woman in her Himalayan refuge the joy of a visit 
from one of her closest friends. Dr. Martha Sheldon,* 
medical missionary from Bhot. The day was spent 
"on the heights" in every sense by these two in- 
trepid fellow-soldiers of Jesus Christ. 

What an evening we had together, wrote Dr. Sheldon later. 
Christmas morning we were up bright and early, as it was to 
be a full day. As I walked with Miss Reed to the chapel, I 
realized the exquisite beauty and adaptability of the location. 
She has, as Mr. Bailey expresses it, "the whole side of a moun- 
tain," and nature is not niggardly here. Those who are ac- 
customed to look upon Miss Reed's work from a purely senti- 
mental standpoint, do not realize the practical and permanent 
character it bears. The asylum for lepers which, formerly, had 
been all in one, has now been divided, and new houses for the 
men and boys built on another and separate portion of the 
estate. To this locality we went. The rows of neat, well-built 
houses, with many a green, well-kept garden patch, cultivated 
by the inmates, ninety in number as an average, presented a 
pretty sight. The chapel has been built this year. It is commo- 
dious and convenient. 

*Seep. 31. 


A Crusade of Compassion 


A few glowing sentences from one of Miss Reed's 
own letters will aptly close this Christmas chapter. 
"Yesterday," she writes, "we had the most blessed 
of the fivQ Christmas Days I have spent in this 
work and in this much-loved home of His choos- 
ing. Never was the meaning of that wonderful word 
Immanuel more consciously realized than during 
this Christmastide." 

So we leave Mary Reed. Verily she shall see of 
the travail of her soul and shall be satisfied. 



Dufferin Hospital, Rangoon, Burma 



/. Persia. 

2, Arabia, 

J. Turkey and Syria. 

4' E.gypt. 





"In every place to which the Cross has gone it has turned the desert 
into a garden; in every place to which the Crescent has gone it has 
turned the garden into a desert." 

Percy Dearmer. 

From the Himalayan heights let us imagine our- 
selves entering one of the many airplanes about to 
be dedicated to the pursuits of peace. When we 
have soared above the highest snowpeaks and have 
hovered for a moment above the "roof of the world," 
we will steer a straight course west. The Far East 
is left behind us. Without pausing to alight within 
the mysterious borders of Afghanistan, still terra 
incognita to our Battalion of Life, we speed on to 
the Near East, towards the Moslem lands of Persia, 
Arabia, Turkey, Syria, Palestine. Far off to the 
southwest looms vaguely Africa's prodigious pen- 

Until we penetrate into Africa beyond 
the trail of the traders we shall en- 
counter among the peoples who throng these ancient 
lands chiefly followers of Mohammed. We have 
known Islam in India, where it prevails, but does not 
dominate. As we approach the cradle of the Prophet, 
and enter the regions which came under his sway in 
his first twenty years of conquest, previous to the 
middle of the seventh century, and which remain still 


164 A Crusade of Compassion 

under that sway, we wonder if we shall not find 
Islam, after all, a better religion than those more 
ancient systems which rule the Far East. At least, 
we reflect, the Mohammedan is neither heathen nor 
idolatrous. He worships one God, and makes unto 
himself no graven image. 

/. Persia 

We are flying over Persia now, the land of roses 
and nightingales, of Zoroaster and Omar Khayyam, 
of mystic legend and lore. Below us now we dis- 
tinguish, embosomed in rich foliage, the white 
minarets, walls, and domes of a large city. Consult- 
ing our aerial chart we discover that this city isi 
Teheran, the Persian capital. Here we will alight, 
leaving the airplane to go its way on other errands 
for other explorers. We will look about us now and 
see with our own eyes what thirteen hundred years! 
of Moslem domination have done for Persia. 
Disenchant- We find our way through the streets; 

"^«"*- they are but alleys, dark, labyrin- 

thine, ominous. We see big-bodied men clad in 
white, white turbans on their heads. They walk 
past with arrogant stride; occasionally women by 
twos and threes, veiled closely save for the eyes, 
hasten by in furtive fashion as if to make themselves 
invisible as swiftly as possible. The faces of the men 
are sensual; the eyes of the women flash sidelong 
glances. We look into the dwelling places of the 
people, homes no one could term them, human 
rabbit-warrens they have been called. Darkness and 
dirt reign supreme; squalor, vermin, miserableness 
are everywhere. The children huddle together among 

The Near East 165 

pigs and chickens, sitting listlessly on the bare ground 
while flies, which they are too lethargic to note, 
swarm over their faces; older boys and girls are 
busily at work collecting cow and camel dung in 
baskets. This is taken home, made into flat cakes, 
and placed upon the house walls to dry both for 
poultices in case of sickness and for fuel. Little 
wonder that the atmosphere reeks with pollution. 
Where are the roses and nightingales of Omar? In- 
stead of liquid bird notes the air shrills with sharp 
voices of women berating their children in phrases 
so violent and obscene that we are glad of the 
limitations of our knowledge of the language. 
Persian ladies Perhaps, however, we are invited to 
of fashion. enter some inner courtyard of a home 

of wealth and pretension. Here we shall indeed find 
roses, a fountain, and gaily dressed ladies. We might 
fancy, from the distance, that these resemble the 
houris of song and story. The illusion fades on 
nearer view. These Persian ladies loll on low divans, 
smoking endless cigarettes, sipping endless coflFee, 
devouring sweets and fruit like greedy children, 
gossiping freely and casually of immoralities the 
grossest, dozing, quarreling. They do not think; 
they cannot read; they cannot go abroad at will. 
If their children are sick they call for some witch-like 
crone who administers herbs and leeches, or gashes 
the baby's back with a knife at so much a cut. 
Perhaps the priest may write a verse from the Koran 
to be used as a charm against the demon. If death 
comes to those whom they love they know only 
despair which finds vent in wild shrieks and hopeless 

i66 A Crusade of Compassion 

Sadly we must admit that the social standards 
of Islam are no better and the life of the Moslem 
woman on Moslem ground no whit nobler than in 
the Far East. Islam is ever the same and ever evil. 
Listen for a moment to a few expressions of convic- 
tion spoken by experts on the ground: 

The Moslem Bible (the Koran) perpetuates slavery, polyg- 
amy, divorce, religious intolerance, the seclusion and degrada- 
tion of women; it petrifies social life. 

Mohammedanism is corrupt to the very core. The morals of 
Mohammedan countries are corrupt and the imagination very 
wicked. Women are degraded with an infinite degradation. 

I think Islam has the most blighting, withering, degrading 
influence of any false creed. 

The follower of the Prophet would sooner lie than tell the 
truth; the whole routine of Moslem life is filled with dishonesty 
and double-dealing. 

The very strongholds of religion are strongholds of immo- 
rality in the Moslem world. Slavery, cruelty, contempt of 
human Hfe, fanaticism are fundamentals. 

Woman is held to be a scandal and a slave, a drudge and a 
disgrace, a temptation and a terror, a blemish and a burden. 

A system that puts God's sanction on polygamy, concubinage 
and unlimited divorce, — that hellish trinity, — brings a curse on 
every home in the Moslem world by degrading manhood. But 
these social and domestic evils cannot be rebuked or deplored 
by better class Mohammedans without reflecting on the career 
of Mohammed and without contradicting the teachings of the 
Koran, to them the revealed word of God. 

The picture is dark, indeed. Where is light? It is 
in the Gospel of Jesus Christ. And yet that light 
hitherto has burned feebly and with a flickering 
flame in Moslem lands. To change the figure, Islam 
has stood as the "Gibraltar of Heathendom," the 
frowning rock of fierce, vengeful bigotry, against 

The Near East 167 

which the waves of the incoming tide of Christianity- 
beat almost in vain. 

Here in Persia, missionary work, 
ope an ig . j^^g^j^ jj^ j g^^ \^y ^.j^g American 

Board and now carried on, in the main, by the 
Presbyterian Board, has been forced to address itself 
largely to the Nestorian and Armenian elements, 
the Moslem people presenting everywhere an almost 
solid front of contemptuous opposition; indeed, the 
death penalty is the price, according to law, of 
apostasy from the state church of Islam. Humanly 
speaking, the day would have been lost had it not 
been for the reinforcement of the Battalion of Life. 
The Christian doctor has saved the day, "All the vast, 
unoccupied territory in the Mohammedan world," 
says Dr. Zwemer, "is waiting for the pioneer medical 
missionary, man or woman. . . . There was a day 
when Mohammedan fathers and mothers would 
rather see their children die in their arms than 
carried to the hospital of the Christian; today every 
hospital is crowded." 

"I can bear my testimony," said the author of 
Twenty-five Years in Persia, "that everywhere, and 
certainly in Mohammedan lands, the Medical 
Missions are the keystone of the great missionary 
arch. They are the key, the only key, which can 
open the Mohammedan lock." 

In 191 2, after a visit to Moslem lands, the Bishop 
of London declared: 

"The fact which emerges from a visit to the Near 
East is the wonderful influence of Medical Missions 
.... As far as I could see the most influential 
people in the Near East were the Christian doctors." 

i68 A Crusade of Compassion 

Mission in Missions here in Persia entered upon 

Teheran. ^ new day when medical work began 

in Urumia in 1878 under that distinguished pioneer. 
Dr. Joseph P. Cochran. 

But we are still in Teheran. We have seen the 
dark side of the Moslem city. Let us make our way 
now to the Central Mission Compound, emerging 
thus from the sinister atmosphere of lust and filth 
and cruelty into the fair light of a Christian house- 
hold. Two miles away, in the north-eastern part of 
the city, stands the mission's hospital. Land for it 
was presented by the Persian Prime Minister, whom 
Dr. W. W. Torrence (it was he who in 1881 began 
medical work here) cured of an obstinate malady. 
The hospital was built in 1892, and a new dispensary 
added in 1893, where during the cholera epidemic 
of that year more than two thousand patients were 
treated. During a more terrible season of cholera, 
in 1904, the missionaries carried on four centres of 
medical work, in which more than four thousand 
patients were treated gratuitously. 

A Persian lady of highest rank, writes Dr. J. Richter, the wife 
of a major-general, a relative of the ruling Shah, was operated 
upon, with the Shah's consent. This proof of confidence on the 
part of the leading authorities made a deep impression on the 
population of the capital. From that day women thronged to 
the hospital as patients. In the same year a wealthy Persian 
woman gave the money for an addition to the men's hospital, 
for the special use of poor women. She paid the cost of furnish- 
ing the building also, and took a lively interest in the patients, 
particularly in the severe surgical cases, for which nothing could 
have been done without a hospital. 

This women's building is in charge of Dr. Mary 
J. Smith, in whom is found an untiring worker not 



President of the Union Medical School, South India 


The Near East 169 

only in dispensary and hospital, but in the homes 
of the purdah women of Teheran. In Persia, as 
everywhere in medical missions, the dispensary has 
a large part to play in spreading the good news of 
the Kingdom. 

A dispensary It is through this agency that Persian 
Christian. women are most widely and effective- 

ly reached. An instance in point is given us by an 
English observer as occurring near Ispahan, a city 
in this part of Persia. A suffering woman, who 
came habitually to the Missionary Society's dis- 
pensary for treatment, was accompanied by her 
niece, an intensely bigoted young Moslem woman, 
named Sakineh. After a time the niece was sent 
alone to procure medicine for her aunt and found 
herself embarrassed by the necessity of hearing 
prayer and Bible lesson before the medicine would 
be given her. In various ways she tried to get the 
bottle without the Christian message, but in vain. 
Gradually the words of Divine love touched her 
heart; Sakineh listened and believed. With great 
courage she renounced Islam completely, declaring 
her faith in Jesus as her only Saviour. For two 
years she was kept in close confinement, forbidden 
all communication with the missionaries; fierce 
persecution was visited upon her, from which she 
scarcely escaped with her life, but through all these 
fiery trials Sakineh rernained true. There are many 
Sakinehs, perhaps never known by name even to 
those through whose lips they heard the Gospel. 
^ , As we stand in Teheran and look 

General survey. , t^ • 1 •! r 

westward over Persia we nail from 
afar other outposts of our beneficent Battalion. At 


lyo A Crusade of Compassion 

Tabriz there is not only a general hospital, but a 
hospital for women and children; this was opened in 
1899 by Dr. Mary Bradford, who was succeeded by 
Dr. Edna Orcutt and Dr. Mary R. Fleming. The 
work is promoted by the ladies of the station who 
spend much time in visiting lepers and in relief 
work for refugees. At Hamadan stands the Lillie 
Reed Holt Memorial, the only hospital between 
Teheran and Bagdad, a distance of five hundred 
miles. Here we find a separate women's hospital, 
the Whipple Memorial, in charge of Dr. Mary Allen. 
At Urumia, head centre of the Persian Mission, is 
the famous Westminster Hospital, built in 1880, 
during the life of the lamented Dr. Cochran. Howard 
Annex for women was added in 1890. This is the 
largest and most thoroughly equipped hospital in 
Persia and its success has been such as to break 
down the almost invulnerable wall of Moslem 
prejudice. Followers of the Prophet no longer hesi- 
tate to imperil their hope of paradise by sleeping 
under a Christian roof, eating Christian food, taking 
Christian medicine, and submitting to the defiling 
touch of Christian hands. This betokens a new day 
for Persia. Truly, the mainspring of missionary 
eflfectiveness in these regions is found in the medical 
work. The Gospel, diligently preached in the hospi- 
tal wards, faithfully distributed by means of printed 
portions in the dispensaries, has been heard with 
gladness and received with many hopeful signs. 
Despite the terror and confusion which ruled for 
a time in the war zone, the report of Urumia for 
191 8 declares, "The past year every department, 
evangelistic, educational, and medical, has been in 

The Near East 171 

operation. . . . The medical work has ministered 
to people of every class, as has been the case during 
the whole history of the mission." This favorable 
report from the Persian mission storm centre of war 
perils gives the keynote for the others. Unrest, 
however, is not at an end. 

We have, coming to our hospitals and dispensaries, people of 
many nationalities, obtaining relief from their sufferings and 
being brought under the sound of the Gospel. The Medical 
Mission work helps every other branch of the work; we have 
sometimes found it extremely difficult to get congregations on 
Sunday morning to our Persian services where we have no 
hospital, but, where we have medical work established, there we 
have literally hundreds of Mohammedans at the services. In 
Ispahan, where we used to have a mere sprinkling of Moham- 
medans on Sunday morning, now we have week after week one 
hundred and seventy to two hundred Persians in the church. 
At the Christmas and Easter festivals we sometimes have six 
hundred to eight hundred Mohammedans in church, with an 
overflow of one hundred and thirty to one hundred and eighty 
in another building. If it were not for Medical Missions we 
should not get these congregations in our churches. 

At the same time the Medical Mission is helping the schools. 
Where we used to have great opposition from Mohammedan 
mullahs, our schools constantly closed, parents fined, teachers 
beaten, pupils driven away, we have now men and women doctors, 
men's and women's hospitals, and the mullahs say, "The doctors 
are our best friends. What are we to do with our wives and 
daughters if in time of sickness they have no hospital to go to?" 
The consequence is, they look at the schools and say, "We had 
better not interfere with them. The doctor and clergyman and 

172 A Crusade of Compassion 


schoolmaster are working together. We shall find them our best 
friends, and therefore we had better let the pupils continue at 
their studies." Not only these congregations on Sunday are 
themselves very largely due to the work of Medical Missions, 
but the fact that we have hundreds of boys and girls in our 
schools is also largely due to the work of Medical Missions. 

Bishop Stileman, author of 

Twenty-Jive Years in Persia, 

2. Arabia 

**There are certain fields of missionary endeavor where medical 
missions appear destined to exert a peculiarly powerful influence. This 
would seem to be especially true in Mohammedan countries." 

J, R. Williamson. 

Mohammed, the Prophet of Islam, its head and 
founder, was born at Mecca and died at Medina, 
cities of Arabia. In the year 632 A. D., the date of 
Mohammed's death, it is believed, not a Christian 
was left alive in Arabia. **From that date" says Dr. 
A. J. Brown (the italics are his), ''until the day of 
Keith Falconer^ the whole of Arabia was utterly^ con- 
tinuously^ and inexplicably neglected by the Church of 
Christ in its work of evangelization. The false prophet 
held undisputed sway over the whole peninsula," It 
was in 1885 that Keith Falconer and his wife, 
self-supporting missionaries, went to Aden. Since 
his death, which followed in but a few months, the 
Free Church of Scotland has carried on the work 
in Aden, in particular the hospital. 

Mission work in Arabia is further carried on by 
the Reformed Church in America under whose 
auspices the Arabian Mission was organized in 1889, 

The Near East 173 

Dr. James Cantine and Dr. Samuel M. Zwemer 
having been the pioneer missionaries. The centres 
are at Bahrein, Busrah, Muscat, and Kuweit. At all 
these stations medical work is in charge of a staff 
of ten physicians, six men and four women. Many- 
thousand patients, men, women, and children, have 
been treated in hospital and dispensary practice 
yearly with gratifying results. 

The history of the medical work has been one of extension 
and growth, of gradual increase in the force of workers, and 
occupation of new fields. In 1900, work was definitely opened 
at Bahrein, and in October, 1902, the new Mason Memorial 
Hospital was taken into use, and formally dedicated at the 
Mission Meeting in January, 1903. In Busrah, meanwhile, a 
large work continued to be carried on, but with no accommo- 
dations for in-patients, surgical and medical, beyond those 
furnished by a commodious native house. The spring of 19 10, 
however, saw the laying of the cornerstone of the Lansing 
Memorial Hospital, and the building went rapidly on to com- 
pletion the same year. The previous year, 1909, a doctor was 
established at Matrah, near Muscat, with the hope of buying 
land and erecting a hospital in the near future. Early in 1910, 
also, Kuweit, important as the key to the interior of the Nejd, 
was reopened by medical workers from Busrah, and later in 
the year land was obtained on which to erect a hospital and 
other mission buildings. 

V ettes ^^ Kuweit, Mrs. E. E. Calverly, 

M.D., now in charge of the hospital 
and dispensary work, comes daily in contact with 
the sorrows and sufferings of Arab women. From 
her sketch in Medical Missions , February, 191 6, 
omitting quotation marks, we give the following 
vivid pictures, as typical of the intercourse between 
our missionary physicians and Moslem women in 
all lands. 

174 A Crusade of Compassion 

Come with me for a little visit to Arabia,, our adopted country. 
It will mean a sea voyage of six or seven weeks to reach our home 
in Kuweit. We must cross the Atlantic, skirt the southern coast 
of Europe, pass through the Suez Canal, through the Red Sea, 
along the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula to Bombay, 
and from there take another ship and steam northward up the 
Persian Gulf, along the eastern coast of Arabia, to Kuweit. 
Home life of Arab houses are built around a central court, 

the women. a square of ground exposed to the sky, and 

having all the windows and doors of the surrounding rooms open 
into it. There are no outside windows lest passers-by should 
catch a glimpse of the women of the household. Some of the 
highest class of women do not go outside the four walls of their 
house from the time they are brought as brides of twelve or 
thirteen years to the home of the husband, until they are carried 
out to the graveyard. The middle class have more freedom, but 
they must never go out unless their faces are entirely covered 
with the black veil and cloak, — leaving just as little an opening 
in the cloak as is really necessary in order to see the road. 

The wealthy houses have a second courtyard exclusively for 
the women, and which can be reached only by passing through 
the men's court. A man will not trust his father or his brother 
to see the face of his wife. Even the poor Bedouin Arabs, who 
spend their lives wandering over the desert from oasis to oasis, 
have their tents divided by a curtain through the centre so that 
the men may sit on one side and the women on the other. 

At meal time the dinner is brought to the heads of the house, 
and not until after these have ceased to eat do the women sit 
down to eat what is left. A man would not condescend to eat 
with a woman. I knew an old man who loved his daughter 
dearly and used to call her to sit by his side while he ate, but she 
might not eat with him because he was a man and she was a 
woman ! 

A man will not condescend to walk with his wife on the street. 
If they must walk to the same place, he walks ahead and she 
behind; and if there is a burden to carry, it is the wife who bears 
it on her head. 

Social life of As soon as we moved into our little house in 

Arab women. Kuweit, Arab visitors began to come. By 

The Near East 175 

twos and threes the women entered our courtyard, black shroud- 
ed figures. They were welcomed and conducted to the room 
which serves as church on Sunday, schoolroom on weekdays, and 
reception-room after school hours. Here I could assure them that 
they could remove their veils without fear of having their faces 
seen by any man. 

A Sunday school picture roll hung on the wall, and this 
seldom failed to excite questions and give us a chance to tell the 
Bible stories which they represented. Then there was a baby 
organ. The women had never seen an organ before, and always 
wanted us to play and sing to them. This furnished us an 
opportunity to explain such hymns as "J^sus loves me," and 
"I need Thee every hour." 

An Arab lady One day the wife of a very wealthy Arab 

of Persia. came to see me. She was very haughty and 

reticent at first, as she sat there dressed in her silks and jewels, 
but after we had done our best to entertain her, and served 
refreshments in Arab style, she began to tell her troubles. 

"You know," she said, "Khatoon, my husband has another 
wife. I have never seen her. She lives in another house, and 
just as I have two children — so has she. She hates me and I 
hate her. My husband says he cannot afford to keep two houses; 
that we must live together. I can't do it! I won't do it! I will 
die first!" 

Relieving the The medical work allows one to get an even 
suffering. more intimate knowledge of the life of the 

Arab woman. When we went to Kuweit the people had never 
before seen a woman missionary, and most of them had never 
seen any other white woman. 

Two rooms of a native house built of mud and plaster, a big 
table, a little table, a chair and a bench, a box, and some basins 
for washing the hands; these, and a pink calico curtain, stretched 
across one of the rooms used for examination and treatment, 
constituted the equipment of the Woman's Hospital of Kuweit 
in the beginning. At first there were few patients and much 
distrust. During the last year we were frequently asked to treat 

176 A Crusade of Compassion 

members of the royal household, who contributed generously 
to the support of the hospital. My Arab costume was a gift from 
the wife of the heir-apparent to the throne. 

If we had been doubtful as to whether medical work was 
having any effect upon Kuweit, we were reassured when the 
prominent Arabs of the town held a meeting and decided to 
send for a Turkish doctor and establish a Moslem dispensary 
where the poor might be treated free without coming under 
Christian influence. The doctor came and spent much money 
on equipment, but his work was not very successful and he was 
not willing to treat the poor free, because he had not the spirit 
of Christ as an incentive. In a few months he became so un- 
popular that he left town, leaving all his drugs to be confiscated 
by the ruling sheik. 

At first the patients were sometimes afraid to take our medi- 
cine, but confidence grew. Toward the end of our stay in Arabia 
I was called to see a woman whom I had never met before. She 
was suffering terribly, but I feared she would not allow an opera- 
tion which was necessary. Before I had even time to suggest an 
operation, she said: "Doctor, do with me as you think best. 
I have perfect confidence in you. You may even cut me open if 
you like." How sad it would have been had this woman's con- 
fidence been in vain. God blessed the operation and she recov- 
ered, and became our firm friend. 

Our opponents also threatened to secure a Moslem woman- 
doctor to be my rival; but we were not greatly alarmed at this 
talk, for we knew that in the whole Turkish Empire there was 
but one woman with a license to practise medicine, and she was a 
Christian missionary. 

The work was not always encouraging; but one day we chanced 
to overhear a conversation between two women patients. 

"The doctor," said one, "takes just as much pains with those 
who cannot pay as with the rich patients." 

"Yes," said the other, "and look at her dressing that dirty 
ulcer on that poor woman. What Moslem would do that?" 

We have prayed that they might see from our lives that the 
religion of Jesus Christ gives something which they need, and 
do not have. 

The Near East 177 

Six days a week the waiting-room of the women's dispensary- 
is more or less filled with women and children of every station 
in life and all degrees of intelligence. When the crowd seems to 
have reached its largest size — twenty, thirty, or even forty 
patients, besides their companions who do not come for treat- 
ment — all treatments are stopped for about ten minutes while 
the doctor takes her seat with the patients gathered before her 
on the floor or bench. There is sometimes great confusion, with 
the women laughing and talking and babies crying. It takes 
several minutes to get them all quiet. **Do not talk," we say in 
Arabic. "Keep quiet," the assistant says in Persian, "you 
women over there in the corner; the doctor's going to pray and 
ask God to heal your diseases." 

Finally, when all is quiet, we begin by a short prayer asking 
God's blessing on each one, and especially upon the reading 
which is to follow. The prayer is very simple, but God has many 
times answered our request. 

J. Turkey and Syria 

"Thus saith the Lord God, Remove the diadem, and take off the 
crown; this shall not be the same; exalt him that is low and abase him 
that is high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn it; and it shall be no 
more, until He come whose right it is, and I will give it him." 

Prophecy of Ezekiel. 

The world war has changed the face of Christian 
missions in the Turkish Empire. In this, one of the 
earliest of our foreign fields, we find today the name 
of one station after another in our annual reports 
followed by a blank, by the words, "to await the 
outcome of the war," or with names of one or two 
lonely missionaries who remain behind of their own 
choice at imminent peril. 

With the Armenian nation scattered and all but 
exterminated, missions among them are of necessity 


178 A Crusade of Compassion , 

at a standstill. Nowhere have conditions been more 
thrillingly set forth than in the book, An American 
Physician in Turkey ^ by Dr. C. D. Ussher, an incom- 
parable record of heroism without heroics. What 
was true of the mission in Van, — complete destruc- 
tion, — has been true in general throughout Turkish 
-., , All things being in transition no 

The new day. , ° ^ . 111 

element now remams stable but 
hope; hope, however, has grown, of a sudden, to 
startling proportions. Under after-war conditions, 
with the breaking-up of the Turkish Empire, with 
the establishment of an autonomous Armenia, and, 
it may be, a Christian-controlled Palestine all in 
sight, a new and glorious era for Christian Missions 
is clearly at hand. The Pride of Islam is crumbling, 
the soldiers of the Crescent henceforth will present 
a less fierce and inflexible resistance to the soldiers 
of the Cross. We may look for mighty changes and 
speedy ones. 

It is not, then, the moment for survey of Christian 
Missions in these lands in the past, nor even in the 
present. It is the hour of the future, the hour of 

Finn Nevertheless, it is an hour for pro- 

Foundations, found thanksgiving that in the cen- 

tury just closing, the century which began in Novem- 
ber, 1 8 19, with the mission to Palestine of Pliny 
Fiske and Levi Parsons, foundations broad and deep 
have been laid in these strongholds of Mohammedan- 
ism for the superstructure which may soon arise to 
gladden Christendom. The personnel of the Ameri- 
can Mission to Turkey, from the beginning, has been 

The Near East 179 

peculiarly adequate and distinguished by eminent 
attainment in all branches of missionary service, 
whether evangelistic, educational, or medical. The 
latter has, from the first, been accorded prominence. 
Just before the opening of the war the situation of 
medical work was thus given in brief: "The Ameri- 
can Board has nine hospitals in Turkey, all in the 
interior of the Asiatic portion. Almost all of them 
maintain dispensaries and outside practice, as well 
as conduct the distinctive work of a hospital. In 
these nine institutions last year there were treated 
three thousand, four hundred and one in-patients, 
while to the dispensaries came twenty-eight thou- 
sand, nine hundred and thirty-four patients who 
received one hundred and twelve thousand, eight 
hundred and thirty treatments. Each of these hos- 
pitals serves a wide area, patients coming from 
hundreds of towns and villages.'*/ These hospitals 
were located at Marsovan, Cesarea, Sivas, Aintab, 
Harput, Van, Mardin, Erzroom, and Diarbekir and 
to them is added the International Hospital at 
Adana and the American Christian Hospital at 
Konia, Asia Minor. 

Christian unity Dr. Ussher of Van says, "Although 
realized. q^j. Board is a Congregational Board, 

fifty-eight per cent, of its missionaries represent a 
number of other denominations; in the Eastern 
Turkey Mission there were Congregationalists, Pres- 
byterians, Methodists, Baptists, Disciples, Episco- 
palians, and Lutherans, all working together in 
perfect harmony, and with no reference to differ- 
ences in creed or ritual." 

This suggestive summary may be supplemented 

i8o A Crusade of Compassion 


by allusion to the unfailing provision for the treat- 
ment of women and children and to the heroic labors 
of women as physicians, nurses, and hospital superin- 
tendents in the work in Turkey. Dr. Caroline 
Hamilton at Aintab, Dr. Ida Stapleton at Erzroom, 
and Dr. Ruth Parmelee at Harput have won their 
way as qualified physicians and have contributed 
not a little towards changing the Moslem concep- 
tions of woman's place in the scale of being. The 
Christian hospitals are, with probably no exception, 
equipped with wards or special buildings for women 
and children, while the dispensaries have been care- 
fully arranged, so that the Moslem women may 
receive treatment without incurring the danger of 
being seen of men. 

, It is an interesting fact that at six 

mission stations in Turkey women 
and only women are remaining; at the rest one or 
two men "hold the fort." Everywhere the devasta- 
tion of war has broken up the work and scattered 
the workers. As typical of present conditions we 
call attention to the report for 191 7 of the mission 
station at Harput on the Euphrates River amid the 
foothills of the Taurus mountains. This station, 
widely known and well since 1855, had on its list 
of active service at the outbreak of the war fourteen 
ordained pastors, twenty-one ordained preachers, 
and one hundred teachers, men and women. At 
present, so far as is known, one pastor survives, 
three unordained preachers in Harput and three in 
exile are living, and twenty teachers remain. All of 
the forty-three schools are closed and the buildings 

The Near East i8i 

either destroyed or in the hands of the Turks. Of 
the thirty-six churches all are gone save one, the 
church in Harput proper. Euphrates College was 
closed in February, 191 5, its professors were arrested, 
subjected to terrible treatment and to tortures so 
extreme that in most cases death followed. The 
Euphrates Medical Association conducted, in affilia- 
tion with the college and hospital, a class in mid- 
wifery. A nurses' training school, a dispensary and 
infirmary for orphan children were also carried on. 
This hospital, begun by Dr. H. H. Atkinson with 
the co-operation of his wife in 1902 in a single room, 
with an outfit costing two hundred dollars, has now 
become the Annie Tracey Riggs Memorial Hospital, 
a finely equipped building on a beautiful site a few 
miles out of Harput. But all is now changed, albeit 
the hospital has been open without interruption 
since the beginning of the war for sick and wounded 
soldiers who were cared for in large part by Christian 
attendants and under Christian influence. No one 
can estimate the value of the seed thus sown in 
the hearts of many Moslem soldiers. Dr. Atkinson 
died of typhus in December, 191 5. When the mis- 
sionaries left Harput in May, 1917, the hospital 
was left in the hands of the military authorities. At 
the personal request of Mrs. Atkinson, however, 
the part of the hospital that had been used for poor 
Christian patients was still kept for that purpose, 
and the income from the sale of the hospital drugs 
was, at last accounts, being used to support a con- 
siderable number of Christian patients in that 
hospital, under the care of military doctors. 

i82 A Crusade of Compassion 


The return of ^^ ^^ ^^^^ profound satisfaction that 
the Turkey as this book goes to press the American 

missionaries. g^^^.^ ^j^^^ ^^^ information follow- 

ing: Turkey agreed to capitulate on Thursday, 
October 31. The articles of capitulation and armis- 
tice were signed on the Island of Lemnos, Friday, 
November i. On Wednesday, October 30, in antici- 
pation of these events, the Foreign Secretary of the 
Board, Dr. James L. Barton, in company with Mr. 
W. W. Peet, the treasurer of our missions in the 
Near East, waited upon Secretary Lansing and other 
government officials at Washington and obtained 
consent for our Turkey missionaries to return at the 
earliest date when sailing arrangements can be made. 
Dr. James L. Barton and President E. C. Moore 
of the Board headed a Commission which started 
for the Near East January first, 1919. No time must i- 
be lost in rendering relief to the stricken popula- \\ 
tions, both Christian and Moslem. Fully half of 
the Armenian race in the Ottoman Empire has 
perished, and over two million Moslems have died 
through famine and disease, brought upon them 
by their own mad rulers. Those who remain are in 
dire distress. 

The Commission of seven, starting in advance, 
will be followed by the larger body of relief workers. 
This group will include the greater majority of 
American Board and Presbyterian missionaries to 
Turkey, who have been detained in this country or 
forced to return here by the war. They will go, 
many of them, to stations where they were before 
attached; will deal with regions and races with 
which they are familiar; and will be able to render 

The Near East 183 

immediate service, because of their knowledge of 
language and custom, their personal acquaintance 
with the people, Turks as well as others, and the 
confidence which they have won in the labors of 
former years. By their coming they will enable the 
fifty or more American Board missionaries who have 
remained in Turkey during these terrible years to 
get away for the furloughs that are long overdue. 

The relief body will include a medical unit, headed 
by Dr. Washburn, of Boston. It will include sur- 
geons, specialists and general practitioners, nurses 
and hospital orderlies. Supplies of hospital furnish- 
ings, medicines, etc., are being collected. This 
party hopes to sail early in January. 

In 1870, the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions of the Presbyterian Church in 
the U. S. A., North, took over the work in Syria 
and has conducted it with characteristic organizing 
ability. Medical work here, as everywhere else, was 
carried on, able physicians from the first entering 
the field. The famous translator of the Bible, Dr. 
Van Dyck, equally distinguished as scholar and 
physician, was one of the first of these. Regular 
medical mission stations were established with cen- 
tres at Beirut and Tripoli. All the spiritual and 
intellectual life which ennobles Syria has had its 
source in Beirut, seat of the Syrian Protestant 

The medical work in Syria in the past has been 
furthered by the presence in Beirut of the Johanniter 
Hospital, with its spacious buildings and fine facili- 
ties. The management of this hospital well illus- 
trates co-operation in benevolence. The property is 

184 A Crusade of Compassion 

owned and the hospital maintained by the Johanniter* 
Order, popularly known as the Knights of St. John. 
The nurses are provided by the deaconesses of 
Kaiserswerth, and the medical and surgical staff by 
the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut. The medical 
department of the College gives a thorough four 
years* course. The effect of this is seen in the steadily 
advancing standard of medical training throughout 

The Maria de Witt Jessup Hospitals for women 
and children were opened in 1905, in a temporary 
home. In the autumn of 1907, a new women's 
pavilion was completed; an eye and ear pavilion has 
been added and a hospital for children with forty- 
five beds. A nurses' training school for Syrian girls 
is under the direction of American nurses. Mrs. 
Gerald F. Dale, in 1905, became the superintendent 
of these hospitals. Mrs. Dale says: 

"We can accommodate one hundred and thirty 
patients. They come from all parts of Syria and 
Palestine, from Egypt, Cyprus, Constantinople, 
Russia, and various parts of Asia Minor. They range 
from the Persian lady of wealth, to the goatherd, 
who tossed about in misery, because the pillow was 
too soft, the bed too easy, and he longed to lie down 
on mother earth, with nothing but the sky above 

The work of Dr. Mary P. Eddy is also associated with Beirut 
station. On returning to her native Syria in 1893, after a com- 
plete medical course in the United States, Dr. Eddy succeeded 
by long patience in obtaining the degree of doctor of medicine 
and surgery from the Turkish Government, with permission to 
practice anywhere in the Empire. This was the first government 

The Near East 185 

degree ever given to a woman. For some years Dr. Eddy spent 
most of her time in medical and evangelistic tours through the 
entire mission field, in the service of women particularly. 

In 1903, Dr. Eddy opened a hospital and dispensary for 
women at Junieh, fifteen miles across the bay from Beirut. The 
medical work is firmly established; there are regular Sabbath 
services; schools for the boys and girls; a Bible Society colporteur 
working in the villages; a Bible woman to visit in the neighbor- 
hood and among the patients. On the hospital premises are a 
resting room, a guest chamber for missionaries, a reading room 
and a Bible depository. Regular clinics are held for Moslem 
women. Many Kurds and Bedouins also attend. These wander- 
ers have learned to trust Dr. Eddy, and when their tents are 
invaded by illness they take refuge in her vicinity. 

Tubercular disease, both medical and surgical, is extremely 
prevalent in Syria. The people have an unreasoning dread of it, 
and the sufferers are often driven out from their homes and 
left to perish without care or comfort. One woman, discharged 
from a non-Christian hospital, walked the streets of Beirut for 
hours, seeking a resting place. No one would listen to her, and 
when night fell she took refuge under the arches of a bridge, 
with a stone for her pillow, and lay there for five days. Some 
passers-by were finally moved to build a little hut for her, but 
the terrified neighbors threatened nightly to come and burn 
both it and her. Dr. Eddy heard of her need, and at once took 
her in and cared lovingly for her until her death. 

Moved by this and other distressing cases. Dr. Eddy opened, 
in 1908, a small sanitarium for tuberculous patients. By the 
gifts of the women of Washington (D. C.) Presbytery, the Ham- 
lin Memorial Hospital was built at Maamaltain, on Junieh Bay, 
and also a summer camp at Shebaniyeh, about four thousand 
feet up, on a spur of the Lebanon mountains. Here the patients 
are housed in separate shelters, given by Dr. Eddy's friends in 
commemoration of the twentieth year of her service in Syria. 
About fifty patients can be cared for, and pitiful appeals from 
much larger numbers are continually received. This is the only 
institution of the kind in all the Turkish Empire. 

The Tripoli Hospital has forty beds, and for six 

1 86 A Crusade of Compassion 

years, 1908 to 1914, had on its staff a woman phy- 
sician, Dr. Elsie Harris, daughter of the physician 
in charge. Religious services are held in the hospital 
chapel. Dispensaries are conducted at Hums and 

f Syrian missions have suffered severely from the 
strain and stress of war, in particular from the 
prevalence of typhus fever, which has spread like a 
conflagration over the Turkish Empire, from con- 
ditions among the armies of soldiers as among the 
armies of refugees. A native survivor out of great 
tribulation declares that there are hardly ten thou- 
sand men left in the city of Beirut and that in 
brief time hunger, disease, and the atrocity of the 
Turk will leave practically no men in the city. This 
man adds, "I am now under the English rule in 
Jerusalem and am very happy that I have got free 
from the Turkish yoke." 
Tu TT 1 T A The whole Christian world rejoices 

The Holy Land. . . , - . . r Vs. • 1 

m the release of the city of David 
and of great David*s greater Son from the abomina- 
ble grasp of the Turk. Brief time has elapsed since 
General Allenby with his troops entered Jerusalem, 
and went on his conquering course through the 
Holy Land, but already we hear of the new day 
which has dawned upon the people who sat in dark- 
ness and in the shadow of death, bound with afflic- 
tion and iron. Everywhere can be seen signs of 
reviving courage, initiative, and energy. Peace, 
security, industrial prosperity are manifest even now. 
The people hail the new era opening for their land. 
Who can doubt that, as the Sun of Righteousness 
arises with healing in His wings over this sacred 

The Near East 187 

soil, so long despoiled and desecrated, the Church 
in America will know a revival of missionary zeal? 
Shall we not look to see the movement of a new 
crusade of compassion for the oppressed daughters 
of Jerusalem ? 

Hitherto our American Mission Boards have 
gained little permanent footing in Palestine. The 
Kaiserswerth Deaconesses organization, founded in 
Syria in 1851 by a German missionary, the Rev. 
T. H. Fliedner, instituted important work in nursing 
the sick in the city of Jerusalem; this sisterhood, 
until the war, had carried on a sanatorium on the 
Heights of Godfrey, northwest of the city. Orphan- 
ages under various auspices exist at different points 
throughout Syria. A new one, to meet war condi- 
tions, has recently been opened at Jaffa by the agent 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

Extensive medical mission work in Palestine, 
prior to the war, was conducted under the following 

The Church Missionary Society, Salisbury Square, 
London, England, with hospitals in Gaza, Jaffa, 
Nablus, and Es-Salt. 

London Jews Society, 16 Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
W. C, with large Jewish hospital at Jerusalem. 

The Edinburgh Medical Mission, with hospitals 
at Nazareth, Tiberias, and Safed. 

Jerusalem and the East Mission, under the Angli- 
can Bishop in Jerusalem, with St. Helena's Medical 
Mission and Nursing Home at Jerusalem, and a 
hospital at Haifa. 

1 88 A Crusade of Compassion 


4, Egypt 

In the old, familiar story of Joseph we read of a 
company of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead beyond 
Jordan, with their camels, bearing spicery and balm 
and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt. It was 
a journey frequently and quickly made, and it is 
the one we now make, without the aid of camels, 
from the Land of ancient Promise to the Land of 
ancient Bondage. 
^'^f^ Egypt is the threshold by which we enter Africa 
/ from the East, rather than an integral part of Africa 
^ itself. Its general features resemble those of Syria 
and Arabia. (In Lower Egypt the Moslems form 
about ninety-eight per cent, of the population, and 
in Upper Egypt about eighty-eight per cent.). The 
Copts, a decadent survival racially of the ancient 
Egyptians and religiously of the early Christian 
Church planted in Alexandria by the Apostles, con- 
stitute less than seven hundred thousand in a popula- 
tion of over eleven million. The stay and backbone 
of the Coptic nationality is its church, under a 
Patriarch to whom all classes render reverence. 
Superstition, ignorance and avarice have indeed eat- 
en out the life of this once truly Christian society; 
none the less the Copts are far more accessible 
to the Gospel than are the Moslems. 
English and The British occupation, begun in 

American 1 882, when anarchy reigned supreme 

in uencc. under Moslem mismanagement, has 

produced a new Egypt and a vastly better one, in 
which progress, industrial, moral and social, has 
been astonishing. English rule has brought in its 

The Near East 189 

train a revival of English missions. The orderly 
extension of the work of the C. M. S. (Church 
Missionary Society) dates, however, only from 1898, 
when a mission hospital was built in Old Cairo and 
extensive work inaugurated. 

Antedating the C. M. S.* by over thirty years 
is the remarkable mission carried on by the United 
Presbyterians of the United States, known better 
as the American Mission, in large-minded indifference 
to sectarian considerations. The Church which this 
mission has built up is known throughout the Nile 
Valley as "the Protestant Church" or "the Evangel- 
ical Church." It was founded in Cairo in 1854 by 
Rev. Thomas McCague and in 1869 the church 
numbered one hundred and eighty members. There 
were stations in several places, the strongest centre 
being at Assiut; in 1895 ^^^ number of communi- 
cants had risen to four thousand, five hundred and 
fifty-four. Work was carried on among Moslems as 
well as Copts, although progress is slow, indeed, 
among the former, and little wonder, since it is true 
that the Mohammedan would rather kill his brother, 
his father, or his son with his own hand than see 
him turn Christian. 

In 1890, a forward movement began in the Ameri- 
can Mission, one result of which was the extension 
of the work to several towns in the Nile Delta, nota- 
bly Tanta, the Mecca of Egypt; another being the 
strengthening of the medical work, heretofore merely 
incidental. In 1901 a large hospital was built in 

* See The King's Highway^ H. B. Montgomery, page 13 fF. Central 
Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions, 1915. 

190 A Crusade of Compassion 

Assiut, and in 1902 two medical women missionaries 
began their work in Tanta. A comfortable hospital 
for women and children is now established in the 
latter city and the work has extended to Luxor, 
Benha, and Fayum, with several physicians, both 
men and women, in charge and a fairly adequate 
nursing staff. Forty thousand people annually are 
treated by the medical missionaries, but the crying 
need of Egypt remains more hospitals for women 
and children, more Christian women to take up 
medical work among them. The Church reaches the 
poor of the cities and the peasants of outlying villages 
mainly through the daily clinic, as in other countries 
which have come under our observation. Dr. Caro- 
line C. Lawrence of the Tanta Hospital describes 
a typical scene in the Egyptian dispensary when the 
Bible woman gathers the people about her, while 
they await the presence of the physician, and reads 
the Bible stories and parables, and transposes them 
into homely, every-day Arabic. "One day," writes 
Dr. Lawrence, "a graphic description is given of the 
wonderful clinics held by the Great Physician with 
a leading-up to the need of healing sin-sick souls. 
Again it is the parables. Thus patiently the story 
which we have to tell them is unfolded. The audience 
shows its appreciation by responses of approval and 
surprise. With the audience there is no question of 
creed or interpretation. It is the painstaking, oft- 
repeated instillation of the essential doctrines: the 
reality of sinfulness, the need of repentance, salvation 
through Christ." 

Mention must be made of the College for young 
women at Cairo, from among whose students we 


The Near East 191 

may look in time for native physicians. Its impress 
is plainly perceptible in the social and home life of 
the better class of Egyptians. It has, indeed, been 
called "the greatest asset for the introduction and 
dissemination of Christian ideals and influence in 

We have a contment before us and cannot tarry 
longer on its threshold, but, as we leave Egypt, we 
leave behind, westward, facing Europe, between the 
Mediterranean and the Great Desert, Tripoli, Tunis, 
Algeria, Morocco, strongholds of Mohammedanism, 
lurking-places of darkness and iniquity indescribable. 
Here is one of the danger spots of the globe, one of 
the fields which call loudest for the invasion in force 
of the Battalion of Life. 

Note: For general reading we recommend American Heal- 
ing around the World," by Edgar Allen Forbes in World's 
Work, November, 1907. 




"I wish to testify to what seemed to me the enormously Important 
work that is being done by missionaries. ... In the Congo almost the 
only people who are working in behalf of the natives are those attached 
to the missions. ... It is due to them that Europe and the United 
States know the truth about the Congo. They were the first to bear 
witness, and the hazardous work they still are doing for their fellowmen 
is honest, practical Christianity." 

Richard Harding Davis, 


It Is Impossible to open even a superficial study 
of Africa without meeting the fact of the mighty- 
advance which Islam has made within less than a 
score of years, of its present prevailing influence not 
only on the fringe of the vast continent, but in the 
interior. Says Dr. Patton, "Until the facts were 
made known at the Edinburgh Conference (1910), 
Christian people had no idea of this new Mohamme- 
dan peril. They are beginning now to realize that 
all Central Africa is threatened, that this is not a 
matter of the neglect of the Church five hundred 
years ago, but of the neglect of the Church today. 
Surely, we must move quickly if we are to save the 
situation In Central Africa." The testimony of 
Mohammedan aggression comes from the East coast 
and the West, and even from Liberia. 

As a symptom of the oncoming tide of Moham- 

194 A Crusade of Compassion 

medanism we are told of a high priest of that religion 
who visited Monrovia, the capital of the Republic 
of Liberia, last July. Coming from the French 
Sudan, his arrival was heralded long in advance. 
His journey through the bush was nothing less than 
a triumphal procession. He came to Monrovia to 
gain permission to establish Mohammedan mosques 
and schools throughout the Republic. For a couple 
of weeks he remained moving about with a large 
company of his followers who sang as they marched 
through the streets. Special attendants carried his 
"umbrella, his chair, and supported his staff. This 
assumption of royal state notably appealed to the 
native man's fancy and the influence gained by 
this priest among them seems boundless. 

The Methodist Episcopal Mission at Inham- 
bane gives striking confirmation of the foregoing, 
as follows : 

Ever aggressive, alert, subtle, and adopting up-to-dane 
methods for reaching the people, such as the singing of sonjjs 
and the training of women and girls in its schools, Mohamme- 
danism is making renewed and strenuous efforts to win Inham- 
bane for the false prophet. The spirit of Islam is the same 
today as when the followers of Mahomet made its converts 
with the sword. Just at this moment they dare not adopt that 
method here, but they use every other method at their disposal 
to make converts. Intermarriage plays a very important part 
in their campaign. More and larger Mohammedan settlements 
are scattered throughout the country and each community is 
a camp of aggressive Moslem propaganda. The red fez and the 
white flowing robes are seen in larger numbers today than ever 
before. May the following be indelibly stamped upon our hearts: 
Ten thousand young Moslems are in training in Cairo as mis- 
sionaries of the Crescent to Africa. The fight is on. It will be 
a fight to a finish. It is made more difl[icult because of the 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 195 

subtle methods adopted by this power. Using a military term, 
"sniping" is practiced in a very large measure by its followers. 

The hope of the present hour is that the Church 
will awake to the danger and act in the crisis of a 
probable disintegration among the Moslem forces 
created by the defeat of Turkey in the Great War. 
The solidarity of Islam has been shaken. It is the 
time for holy strategy and commanding Christian 

Nearly one-fourth of all the land surface of the 
earth is in the continent of Africa, i.e., twelve million 
square miles. 

The distance around the coast of Africa is as 
great as that around the world. 

Eight hundred and forty-two languages and dia- 
lects are in use among the black people of Africa. 

One out of every ten of the inhabitants of Africa 
is a Moslem. 

There is one missionary for every one hundred and 
thirty-six thousand souls and an area unoccupied by 
missionaries which equals three times New Eng- 
land plus four times New York plus eight times 
Iowa plus eighteen times Ohio. 

Animism and Fetishism constitute the religion of 
the natives, a form of paganism which fills the 
whole universe and all material objects with spirits, 
usually evil — a most brutal and degrading religion. 
Pagans number eighty million; Mohammedans, forty 
million; Christians, ten million. 

Since African missions and African pagan peoples 
have been recently the subject of united study, it 
may fairly be inferred that general conditions, and 
facts concerning the degradation of women are now 


igS A Crusade of Compassion 

familiar. Space will be given, therefore, to medical 
work only, and in particular to the medical work 
of women missionaries. 

The world's Short and simple, indeed, are the 

open sore. annals over which we bend. In all 

this vast continent are to be found under missionary- 
auspices eighty-five hospitals; about one hundred 
men physicians and fifteen women physicians. The 
hopeful question springs to mind, among a hardy, 
primitive people, not enervated by civilization, is 
it not true that generally healthy conditions prevail, 
rendering the practice of surgery and medicine in 
large degree superfluous? 

If we could but lay such flattering unction to our 
souls to soothe the sharp compunction of our Chris- 
tian conscience! Unhappily, we cannot. The ques- 
tion meets an unqualified No. The wastage of human 
life in Africa and the needless torturing of it are 
terrible to contemplate. As we read of conditions of 
life in this outer darkness of paganism the words; 
of the prophet Isaiah alone suffice for description : , 

The whole head is sick, and the whole heart ; 

faint. ^ 

From the sole of the foot even unto the head 

there is no soundness in it; 
But wounds and bruises, and putrefying sores: 
They have not been closed, neither bound up, 

neither mollified with ointment. 

In very truth, festering wounds caused by mutila- 
tion for mysterious purposes of adornment are to 
be seen on all sides. Smallpox, epilepsy, and rheu- 
matism prevail widely. 


Africa and the Promise of the Future 197 
Besides these, the sleeping sickness 

African diseases. . , ^ (. •iiiriT 

IS the cause of terrible loss of life. 

Hemorrhagic and other deadly fevers, dysentery, 
anaemia, hook worm disease, ophthalmia, pterygium, 
leprosy, indolent ulcers, tumors of enormous size, 
malformations, intestinal parasites, filaria loa (which 
travels under the eye ball under the conjunctiva), 
malaria, typhus and typhoid, helpless and hopeless 
insanity, cause measureless suffering. The need for 
medical men and women can scarcely be overesti- 
mated. Even toothache has its torments. 

The need for the Battalion of Life in Africa is 
nowhere more clearly shown than in the condition 
of the mothers and the children. We find that when 
the stork comes the mother is treated with great 
cruelty. It is tabu for her to eat or drink anything, 
and she is told that it would kill the child if she 
does. Should the birth be difficult, divinatory bones 
are consulted and the woman may be removed to 
another place. If the birth is delayed, the midwife 
thereby knows that the child is illegitimate, and 
confession is extorted by divination. Pumpkin seeds 
are put into a broken pot and placed on the fire. If 
the seeds explode, instead of burning to a cinder, 
that is proof that the woman is guilty. Each explo- 
sion means a lover, and all the names must be 
revealed before the delaying hindrance can be re- 
moved. The husband is not allowed to approach the 
hut, as he would undergo pollution if he did so. The 
floor of the hut is cleansed by the mother of 
the woman, who smears it with clay to purify it. 
The lack of cleanliness on the occasion of childbirth is 
the cause of an appalling loss of human life. 


198 A Crusade of Compassion 

Besides the witchcraft and magic and charms, 
which are said to be responsible for more wastage 
of human Hfe even than slavery, another source of 
wastage is the appallingly wholesale administration 
of native drugs. Hundreds of lives are lost through 
the ignorance, superstition, and malignity of such 
treatments. A picture of the poisoner at work even 
in the wards of the hospital, surreptitiously trying 
to destroy many lives, and of the incendiary without 
any pretext firing a house and burning all in it might 
be seen, if we could but lift the fringe of the curtain 
that veils heathendom. 

The witch Much of the physical suffering in 

doctor. Africa is due to the horrible practices 

of the witch doctor, the all-powerful authority for 
mind and body to the superstitious native. "He is 
a great foe to the missionary, a bitter opponent to 
the Gospel. He tells the people that the missionary 
comes to buy their souls and take them away to the 
foreign country to re-embody them as slaves. This 
and other falsehoods he makes the people believe, 
that he may hinder them from embracing the teach- 
ings of the missionary, and from accepting the Gospel 
of Christ. Like the silversmiths of Ephesus, he 
knows that his craft is in danger, and he must hold 
his power over the people to secure his gains." 

How is the witch doctor prepared for his work.?* 
The dogma that rules his practice is that in all cases 
of disease in which no blood is showing the patient 
is suffering from something wrong in one of his many 
souls. Trouble at night means that the dream-soul 
is disturbed. He is thought to possess a witch power 
and the knowledge of how to employ it, and this 


Africa and the Promise of the Future 199 

secures for him esteem and honor; the more terrific 
this power is known to be the more respect he gains. 
In every village there are secret societies for men 
and for women. The elders discover a person, man 
or woman, who has power to see spirits. Such are 
advised to be apprenticed to a witch doctor, who 
requires a good fee for the training. He learns the 
difference between the dream-soul basket and the 
one others are kept in, and a mistake would be on a 
par with mistaking oxalic acid for epsom salts. He 
is then taught how to howl professionally, and, by 
watching his professor, he picks up his bedside 
mannerisms. He must also learn how to make charms 
to protect his patients and their wives and children, 
their goats, plantations, canoes, etc. He must also 
be skilled in detecting the guilty odor of crime. 
Charms and It is said that all the ocean liners 

amulets. which cross the deep would not more 

than contain the amulets, charms, trinkets, fetish- 
es, and the whole vast paraphernalia of heathenism 
which has found its genesis in superstition. A spec- 
tral world of demons, dragons, goblins, imps, throng- 
ing spirits of evil, seems to fill the haunted imagina- 
tion of otherwise sane and sober people given over 
to what Sir Monier-Williams designates as "demon- 
ophobia." In the clear and innocent look of a friend 
there is cause to fear the evil eye, — while foreboding 
terror and the dismal follies of witchcraft play havoc 
at a moment's notice with social order and with 
every principle of piety and justice. Physical ills 
such as sickness, pain, or calamity are traced to the 
anger of some unseen evil spirit, malevolent fiend, 
or dragon visitor in the night. At whatever cost 

acxD A Crusade of Compassion 



some method of propitiation must be devised to ward 
off the disaster. Even some innocent neighbor or 
dead relative may be suspected of fiendish machina- 
tions and then that principal of all quacks and 
deceivers, "the smelling-out doctor/' must be called 
to localize the source of the trouble and advise some „ 
method of dealing with it. l| 

Superstitions like these are formidable, but not 
impassable barriers to the Gospel of Christ. Harnack 

"Jesus Christ was the first to bring the value of 
every human soul to light, and what He did no one 
can undo. Since His day those with the highest 
ideals always reverence personality, and hold in- 
violate the sanctity of womanhood and of the inner 
nature. Failure at this point is not failure at the 
circumference but at the center. A low and enfeebled 
conception of God results in a depreciated estimate , - 
of personality. This is true of paganism. Christ 11 
discovered the individual. It is the office of medical 
missions to interpret this discovery in pagan lands." ,- 
Houses changed The effect of this interpretation is || 
to homes. ^qq^i in houses changed to homes. 

The missionary's house becomes the home for the 
friendless, an orphanage for the fatherless, a refuge 
for the oppressed, a school for the ignorant, a work- 
shop for the unemployed, a lawyer's office for the 
perplexed, a hospital for the sick, a resting-place 
for the stranger, and a Bethel for weary souls. The 
changing of houses into homes was a thing unknown 
in Africa before the introduction of Christianity. 
Flowers appear in the homes of those who, before 
their conversion, never saw their beauty or under- , 


Africa and the Promise of the Future 201 

stood the ministry of those silent witnesses. There 
is a marked improvement in the order and cleanHness 
of the rooms, indicative of a growing desire to live 
out religion. There is a deepening conviction in the 
hearts of those who feel the call of God to preach 
the Gospel, that the ministry is the noblest work in 
which they can engage, and many refuse employ-, 
ment which offers much higher remuneration. In 
token of generosity, giving amounts to J7.50 per 
capita, per annum; in the measure of Christian 
character, missionary zeal, and sacrificial giving the 
African convert measures up to the standard. 
Livingstone's Despite Superstition, savagery and 
legacy. degradation we have Livingstone's 

word that "Heathen Africans are much superior to 
the Mohammedans, who are the most worthless one 
can have." Among these people in Southern and 
Central Africa Dr. Livingstone labored mightily, 
"preaching the Gospel and healing diseases" from 
1 841 to 1856. When he severed his connection with 
the London Missionary Society in order to enter 
upon explorations whereby to combat the slave- 
trade, he declared, "The opening of the new central 
country is a matter for congratulation only so far 
as it opens up a prospect for the elevation of the 
inhabitants. I go back to Africa to make an open 
path for commerce and Christianity. I view the 
geographical exploration as the beginning of the 
missionary enterprise. I include in the latter term 
everything in the way of effort for the amelioration 
of our race." It need scarcely be said that in this 
purpose the treatment of disease and the alleviation 
of suffering must have held a high place. 

202 A Crusade of Compassion 


It would be impossible within the limits of this 
chapter to enumerate the many missions which have 
been initiated for the natives of Africa in the century 
since Robert Moffat (in 1816), began his work in 
Bechuana Land. Many of these were short-lived; 
in many cases work was transferred from its original 
Ipcale to another more promising. It is true that all 
African missions received a strong incentive from 
the initiative of Livingstone and from the solemn 
legacy of those words of his, spoken in England in 
1857, "Do you carry out the work which I have 
begun; I leave it with you." The opening of the 
Congo State in 1884 furnished a second challenge to 
the spirit of Missions to which quick response was 
made; at this time the Livingstone Inland Mission 
was transferred to American Baptists. All our major 
American denominational Boards, thirty-six in all, 
now sustain missions in Africa, but, while in nearly 
all a certain amount of medical service is rendered 
through dispensary practice, we do not find this 
branch as thoroughly organized, manned, and equip- 
ped as in Asiatic missions, despite the great demand. 
Africa is obviously the most difficult field for which 
to provide missionary physicians, especially women 

A few glimpses of routine work will enable us to 
estimate in some small degree the trials and the 
rewards which attend the service of those who brave 
the dangers of climate and uncivilization and enter 
here upon the crusade of compassion. 
Apostles of The Society of Friends in 1902 

P^^^®- established a mission in the Kaviron- 

do country, British East Africa. A hospital has been 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 203 

erected at Kaimosi, and is now under the manage- 
ment of Dr. A. A. Bond and Mrs. Bond. We quote 
from their letters: 

April 15, 1 917. Dr. Bond has fixed up one room for a dis- 
pensary and has already had quite a practice. It will take time 
to get the natives to be willing to come and stay here while 
they are sick, but they will come to it gradually. They are so 
bound by their old superstitions and customs, especially the 
old people. The young people are much more easily persuaded 
to take medicine. Several have already been here. They have 
lots of sores and ulcers. It is pitiful to see the little babies with 
these skin diseases. Some babies have been brought who have 
burns. The mothers have to go away to work in their gardens 
and while they are gone the babies, who are left at home on 
the floor, roll into the fire which is in the middle of the hut 

May 7, 191 7. During the first month I treated about one 
hundred and fifty dispensary patients, made five trips into the 
reserve, gave medical attention to six missionaries and other 
whites and made one trip eighty miles distant to see a sick 
settler. During the second month I treated seven hundred and 
fifty dispensary patients, made fifteen visits into the reserve 
and gave medical attention to ten missionaries and other whites. 
There is certainly a great field for medical work here and I 
believe that it will contribute much to the missionary work as 
soon as we get the hospital started, as it will give an additional 
point of contact with the natives and help to win their confi- 

July I, 1 91 7. The medical work continues to increase and 
the outlook is very promising in this connection. The sufl^ering 
due to ignorance, superstition, and filthy living is almost un- 

The not-afraid The results following the work of the 
religion. mcdical missionary are sometimes 

encouraging and sometimes tax one's patience and 
faith. Occasionally, however, a testimony like the 

204 A Crusade of Compassion 

following comes which makes the worker realize that 
no other department of the Mission appeals to the 
West African as does the medical work. He cannot 
read well, if at all. He does not always understand 
the preacher, but he does seem to comprehend the 
love of God when he sees it illustrated by the tender 
ministry that seeks to relieve his suffering. 

"A woman afflicted with a malignant ulcer had 
lain several years on her bed without improvement. 
Her friends brought her, saying, — 'This woman is 
dead unless you can cure her.' After three months 
in the hospital, she was discharged, cured, and best 
of all she had learned to know her S amour. She went 
back to her town at some distance and held meetings 
for the women to tell them what she had learned of 
Jesus. Occasionally she would come back to the 
station saying, *I have told them all I know; tell me 
more that I may repeat it to them.* She was given 
Sunday School pictures with the requisite explana- 
tions and these she would carry back to her class. 
One day she returned with twenty women, who she 
said wanted to know more about 'the Gospel that 
makes people not afraid of evil spirits.' " 
. , "Medical work is still of the most 

A brave woman. ... , . , . - m • xt i • 

primitive kind in Liberia. No white 
physician has ventured there, but Miss Sarah E. 
Conway, a trained nurse, is in charge of a clinic, 
run in connection with the House of Bethany, where 
there is a home for girls at Cape Mount. Here she 
has treated between six thousand and eight thousand 
sufferers each year, and made in addition uncounted 
visits far into the country to relieve the sick who 
could not come to her. These journeys are often of 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 205 

the hardest, through tropic jungles or miles into the 
interior by canoe. It is encouraging to have her 
testimony that everywhere she has been treated with 
greatest courtesy and grateful appreciation of all 
she does." 

Dr. and Mrs. Cammack, missionaries of the Ameri- 
can Board, both of them physicians, were recently 
sent to Western Africa, where they are beginning 
their work at Chisamba. They had not been there 
long when Mrs. Cammack wrote of their surround- 
ings to a personal friend. We cannot better describe 
the work of the medical missionary in Africa than 
by quoting from this letter: 

The medical work here is enough to keep our hands full now, 
and is growing all the time. If it continues to grow after this 
fashion you will have to send us out more doctors before Jong. 
We have from forty to sixty patients each day, and all sorts of 
cases, some of them very interesting and others serious and 
sometimes incurable, though some things which are considered 
almost incurable at home seem to respond better to treatment 
here. We have done as few major operations as possible, because 
of lack of equipment, etc., though we hope to get things in 
better shape for such work when our last order of medical and 
hospital supplies arrives. 

Our work is more than paying expenses already. We took in 
more than enough the first month to pay the initial cost of our 
six months* supplies of drugs. Of course, every month may not 
average as well; it could hardly be expected to do so, but I 
have been surprised at the amount that has come in. It is this 
work that has taken Mr. Cammack away from home so much, 
and it cannot be helped when doctors are so far apart. It takes 
so long to get to and from cases. It will be a long time yet 
before the railroad gets up even this far, and then it will be 
available for travel in only two directions. Well, we'll just have 

2o6 A Crusade of Compassion 

to pray a little harder for the Lord to open somebody's pocket- 
book at home and send us out some more workers. I hate to 
ask for more here, when I know there are so many other coun- 
tries needing them so badly, too; but the destitution and the 
ignorance and superstition and terrible native practices upon 
those who are sick are appalling sometimes. 

One who makes Dr. StaufFacher's hospital at Gikuki, 
sia^- Portuguese East Africa, is one of the 

most remarkable missionary institutions in Africa. 
The hospital staff consists of one foreign physician, 
one foreign nurse, and two native medical assistants. 
During the year there were : 

In-patients 300 

Operations under total anaesthetic 10 

Minor operations 286 

First Visits 1,800 

Return Visits 980 

Itinerating treatments 370 

Itinerating Visits 445 

The hospital has two medical classes with nine men 
and twelve women^ the only available assistants being 
those whom he trains, perforce, himself. 

As for his native patients, their opinion is quaintly 
expressed in the following letter sent by one to the 
Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church: 

"This doctor, — we call him in our native converse, 
*Nenguelisam,' that means interpret, *Maker of 
people to be glad,' ** so runs the letter. "Oh, this 
marvelously doctor! Why? Look at the people; 
these did have great sick which we could not hope 
that these people will be healed. But now are getting 
well. Is he not marvelously doctor? He is doctor of 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 207 

hearts, too. He makes happy the unjoy hearts and 
makes more tenderness the durable hearts. He is 
a friend of babies, children, men, women, white 
people, and he is friend of all people of black. If he 
finds us at food he take the spoon and eat with us 
the food of our black people. Therefore, I make you 
know that you not fatigue to help this make-glad 
Doctor Stauffacher." 

A wedding It was a remarkable wedding journey 

journey. for the young missionaries. Dr. and 

Mrs. Arthur L. Piper, from New York to Kapanga 
in 1 914; the last stage of it was trekked over the 
caravan trail through the forest for eight weeks with 
the little band of carrier boys, laden with the equip- 
ment and medical supplies. It brought these brave 
pioneers to their new home, three hundred miles 
from any other Protestant missionary in any direc- 
tion, and here they alone ministered in body, mind, 
and soul to the pitifully needy community for three 
years, until Miss Marie Jensen, a nurse, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Thomas B. Brinton joined them. A very 
unusual reenforcement to this mission station has 
come from time to time from the freed slaves, who 
have returned to this, their original home, after 
years of bondage and many of whom have become 
Christian through the influence of missionaries in 
the coast towns, to which they were carried in slav- 
ery. With their aid a church, a school, and now a 
hospital, given in memory of Mrs. Piper*s mother, 
have been built and the good tidings are being borne 
to "the regions beyond." 

Dr. Mabie: "For a year she has moved among us, 

an appreciation. ^ beloved presence, a face instinct 

2o8 A Crusade of Compassion 


with sincerity, sympathy, kindliness, and character, 
a way with her peculiar to those who have hearts 
at leisure from themselves. 

"She belonged to us, and yet we knew that she 
belonged in a still deeper sense to Africa and that 
she longed to be about her Father's business. Most 
of us would prefer Boston to the Belgian Congo, but 
Catherine Mabie's heart was true to "the Lord's 
black sheep" deep in the African jungle. But how 
can the doctor cross all the seas between, we asked 
ourselves, with the assassins of the deep ever lurking 
to accomplish their errands of destruction? It is no 
time for a woman to start on a three-months-long ,„ 
journey; let her wait until these troubles are over. ^| 

"Such counsels were met with the comment, 
'Pray us through!' and steady preparation for ^« 
departure; the doctor was too wonted to perils on ^| 
land to be daunted by perils on the sea. And so we 
waved her goodbye, the intrepid little lady with 
her firm faith in the unseen, torpedo-proof, and that 
yearning love for her poor people which many waters 
cannot quench. 

"What did she see before her at her journey 'send? ' 
In her own words, a maze of ignorance, superstition 
and fear; a native thought-plane wholly different 
from her own; an unwritten language; black-skinned 
women, not secluded, not even protected by a single 
garment; a long season of fierce tropical heat with 
torrential rains to fill the air with steam; a small 
dispensary; about its door, — ever waiting, — a crowd 
of half-naked, dirty, heathen mothers with their 
sick babies; children loathsome with skin diseases; 
abscesses needing the knife; childless wives seeking 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 209 

children; sorrowful women whose children all die 
at birth, a folk sin-sick and sorrow-worn who marvel 
much to find somewhere on earth the touch of love 
and healing. 

"But this is not all Dr. Mabie sees. She has not 
lived in Congoland twenty years for nothing. Her 
woman*s wit teaches her to make a home even here. 
She sees a rolling valley at the foot of beautiful 
hills, along whose base flows the river; on a green 
knoll above the valley she sees a cluster of airy 
bungalows, brick dwellings and grass-thatched sheds; 
around these are well-kept lawns, broad paths 
bordered with citronella, cocoanut palms and roses. 
It is an ordered settlement where whole families are 
taught wholesome human conditions of life. In one 
bungalow is a fair chamber she can call her own, 
a retreat for the hours when the multitude scatter 
to their homes, or the long medical itinerary through 
the jungle has come to an end. Life here for her is 
far from impossible; the lives of others are precious, 
and the doctor sees already in her mind's eye what 
is soon to be hers at Kimpese, — the small maternity 
and children's hospital, which the people at home 
have promised her as the crown of her first twenty 
years of service in Congoland. This is what lies at 
the end of the long journey, this, and the communion 
of the white saints and the adoring love of the black 
would-be saints of Kimpese whom she is seeking to 
bring to His feet. Who does not wish Catherine 
Mabie twenty years more of blessed service in the 
Name of the Great Physician?" 
A Congo General The Seventh Annual Conference of 
Conference. Congo Protestant Missionaries was 

2IO A Crusade of Compassion 

held at Luebo, a station of the American Presby- 
terian Church, South, where seventy-three mission- 
aries made up the largest Congo General Conference 
ever held. They said, "We recognized as never be- 
fore the power stored up in this combination and 
union of Protestant Societies." The medical session 
was of great helpfulness, and Dr. F. P. Lynch of the 
American Baptist Mission, in his plea for better 
equipment, said: 

"The first substantial hospital for the Congolese 
was located at Mukimvika on simple yet ample lines 
of construction, with a large central room, well- 
lighted and airy, for general use as a dispensary and 
for operations and surgical dressings. Two wards 
are in direct connection, each one having the normal 
capacity of twenty beds, which are made of pitch 
pine, six feet by three, provided with a native mat 
and blankets. San Salvador followed with larger 
equipment, more buildings, and the important addi- 
tion of a trained nurse to the staff. Bolobo has 
expanded on still larger lines of equipment and 
efficiency. The American Baptist Mission has sud- 
denly made a signal advance in providing ample 
funds for four new hospitals. With the completion 
of the hospitals, the appropriation for the service 
at each hospital will advance from |2oo a year to 
$i,2cx), a change which seems magical and inspiring 
to medical missionaries. A trained nurse with a 
corps of native assistants will be provided for each 
hospital. In the far, fair lands of Christian develop- 
ment, the hospital has become as much a mark of 
progressive Christianity as college or cathedral, and 
here in Congo it should be maintained in repre- 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 211 

sentative standing for the honor of His Service in 
the Wilderness." 

The appeal of In November, 1917, a conference on 
Africa. |-he Christian Occupation of Africa 

was held in New York City. From an address on 
that occasion by Bishop Lambuth, Methodist Episco- 
pal, South, we give a few sentences summing up the 
appeal of Africa. 

"To make Christ known to the unreached millions 
in remote sections the way must be pioneered for 
the Gospel, superstition dispelled and the bondage 
to fear broken. Christianity, presented in the con- 
crete by the medical missionary, wins where nothing 
else will. The medical missionary in Africa is held 
in high regard by the native. . . . The supply of 
doctors in East, West, and Central Africa is utterly 
inadequate; there are too few women practitioners 
and the number of nurses is entirely too small. . . . 
With the exception of four medical missionaries for 
the Sudan, two for the Belgian Congo, and four 
nurses, they are all at work around the rim of the 

Bishop Lambuth makes, among others, the follow- 
ing recommendations: 

1. A survey of the field, especially the tropical 
zone, with reference to the location o{ hospitals in 
connection with mission stations. 

2. A call for a larger number of medical mission- 
aries, men and women, and of trained nurses, the 
latter to be women of more than average experience. 

3. Co-ordination of plans and co-operation of 
effort upon the part of Boards and Societies. 

4. A systematic fight against poisonous insects. 

212 A Crusade of Compassion 


5. The establishment of small but well-equipped 
hospitals and dispensaries, at every central station, 
two doctors and one nurse forming the staff. 

6. The throwing of a line of stations buttressed 
with hospitals and dispensaries, right across the 
continent, through French Equatorial Africa, two 
hundred and fifty miles apart, to check the Moham- 
medan advance. 

/ Theodore Roosevelt has declared that "the good 
done by missionary effort in Africa has been incal- 
culable." But the future must see works like these 
and yet greater works if Africa is to be redeemed. > 


, "Go, Let go, Help go." 

Isabella Bird Bishop, 

It remains for us to take a final glance over the 
lands in which we have seen the Battalion of Life 
at work. 

India has in round numbers a population of three 
hundred and fifteen millions. Here we find under 
missionary* control one hundred and eighty-three 
hospitals, three hundred and seventy-six dispen- 
saries, one hundred and twenty- two men and one 
hundred and fifty-nine women physicians. 

China, with a population of more than four hun- 
dred millions, has three hundred and seventy-two 
mission hospitals, three hundred and twenty-eight 

* All statistics relate to missionary, not general, equipment. 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 213 

dispensaries, two hundred and sixty-seven men and 
ninety-three women medical missionaries. 

For Korea's sixteen millions we have twenty-nine 
hospitals, thirty-one dispensaries, thirty-one men 
and five women medical missionaries. 

The Philippine Islands, with a population of nine 
millions, have ten hospitals, and eighteen dispensaries 
under missionary conduct, with fourteen men and 
two women physicians. 

Siam, with about the same population as the 
Philippines, has ten hospitals, twenty dispensaries, 
thirteen medical missionaries; all men, no women. 

Persia's population is nine millions, five hundred 
thousand. For this number of people she has ten 
hospitals, seventeen dispensaries, thirteen men and 
six women medical missionaries. 

Arabia has a population of one million, five hun- 
dred and ninety-six thousand, one hundred and 
sixty-five. Here are fivt hospitals, eight dispensaries, 
four men and four women medical missionaries. 
-yC Turkey and Syria show about twenty millions 
population. Here are thirty-five hospitals, fifty dis- 
pensaries, forty-eight men and ten women physicians. 

For Egypt's twelve and one-half millions we have 
ten hospitals, sixteen dispensaries, twelve men and 
two women physicians. 

Africa — a continent, not a country, — confronts us 
with its one hundred and thirty-six millions. For 
these the hospitals number eighty-five, the dispensa- 
ries two hundred and twenty-eight, the men physi- 
cians one hundred and six, the women physicians 
fifteen, of whom but five are American. . 

214 A Crusade of Compassion 

Native physi- Africa, Siam, and Arabia have no 
dans demanded, native physicians. The other coun 
tries under survey show a small number (male and 
female taken together) varying from one hundred 
and seventy-two in China to four in Egypt and one 
m Persia. Small, indeed, is this accession to the 
Battalion of Life, but in this body of new recruits 
dwells the promise of the future. For the figures 
which we have presented, giving the results of a 
century of medical missions, tell nothing more loudly 
than that the people of these lands can never be 
effectually served in their dire need by foreign phy- 
sicians. Ithey must come to their own aid. The women 
of India, China, and of the Moslem world, must 
themselves become medical missionaries to their own 
sisters. Dr. Moorshead truly says, "The little band 
of women doctors sent out to such lands as India 
and China, including those laboring in a non-mission |l 
capacity, can never by themselves alone touch more 
than a fringe of the suffering womanhood of these 
great fields." The emphasis must be laid upon the 
native medical woman. 

New recruits This means not a slackening of the 
caUed for. stream of missionary endeavor, but 

an imperative demand for its increase. How can 
these native girls practice the art of healing unless 
they themselves first be taught .^^ And how shall they 
be taught without a teacher .^^ 

In all our upper grade mission schools for girls in 
heathen countries there are pupils who show charac- 
ter and capacity for the study and practice of medi- 
cine. Certain of these, but few indeed, have traveled 
far from home and in Europe or the United States 


Africa and the Promise of the Future 215 

have prepared themselves to serve their own people. 
This is good and very good, but it is not good enough. 
The way is very long; the process costly and difficult, 
the separation from the native land for a term of 
years fraught with divisive and unfavorable possi- 
bilities. What then? 

India shows In the cruciblc of high missionary 

the way. Consultation there has been produced, 

as the final residuum, after all other plans and 
purposes have been evaporated, the necessity of 
native schools on native ground for the training of 
native women in medicine in all lands open to foreign 
missions. This solution of a serious problem remains 
outstanding, in great degree unattained, but not 
unattainable. The beginning has been made. We 
look naturally to India, eldest of our fields of labor. 
Yes, India can show the way. There are now in 
working order two schools of medicine for women, 
conducted under missionary control, — one in the 
north, at Ludhiana, one in the south at Vellore. 

Mention has been made in a pre- 
ceding chapter of Miss Hewlett, the 
English missionary who began her pioneer work for 
women at Amritsar in the Punjab in 1880. Her place 
in medical work for the women of Northern India 
is assured, and the North India School at Ludhiana 
is in a sense her monument. In 1894, Miss Hewlett 
threw her experience into the organizing of this 
school, and clinical opportunities for its first students 
were drawn from her own extensive medical prac- 
tice. Later the Government extended partial support 
to the undertaking, but it remains definitely Chris- 
tian and definitely union in its management and 

2i6 A Crusade of Compassion 

control, and is sustained in large part by a union of 
the various missionary agencies at work in the pen- 

From the circular letter of 191 7-1 8 issued by the 
London Auxiliary Committee we give the following 

The Ludhiana College gives to the Missionary 
Societies an opportunity such as may never occur 
again of associating themselves with a great renais- 
sance. The proportion of young women qualified by 
education to take up medical study is far greater 
among the Christians than in other sections of the 
population. In addition to these, the College admits, 
by arrangement with Government, a certain number 
of non-Christians, who pass their student life under 
Christian influence of the most inspiring kind, al- 
though none are compelled to attend Christian 
services. Thus, if it were enabled to work up to its 
full strength, such a supply of good women would be 
ensured as would leaven this new branch of the medical 
profession throughout. This would mean a silent im- 
pact of the Christian faith on the domestic life of the 
country such as has never been attained hitherto. The 
last generation of missionaries, with true insight, 
threw themselves into the front of the rising desire 
for education, with the result that Bible truth has 
permeated the educated classes to a degree that is 
very far from , being indicated by the number of 
avowed converts. Will their successors of today let 
slip a siill greater opportunity — greater for this reason ^ 
that it is even more important to influence the wives 
and mothers than the men? 

For more than twenty years Dr. Edith Brown has 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 217 

been patiently working, with a self-sacrifice to which 
human praise seems inappropriate. She is assisted 
by a staff of able women who are content to live on 
a subsistence allowance, .all fees from private pa- 
tients being paid to the funds of the College. The 
fees received by Dr. Edith Brown for her professional 
services outside the College in 191 5-16 amounted to 
£1,100, all of which was given to the College. 

The students find not only a thoroughly efficient 
school, but also a Christian home, where they pass 
several impressionable years under the daily personal 
influence of accomplished and devout Englishwomen. 
All visitors, both official and private, are deeply 
impressed with "the atmosphere of studiousness, 
enthusiasm, purposeful energy, and cheerfulness 
which pervades the place," to quote the words of 
the Committee appointed by Government to inspect 
the College. 

A highly competent and impartial observer. Miss 
MacDougall, now Principal of the Women's Chris- 
tian College, Madras, wrote: "The excellence of the 
staff, the efficiency of the hospital and dispensary, 
the beautiful life open to every student, the high 
ideal of work and mutual service, seemed hardly 
open to improvement." 

Training is given the students in nursing, com- 
pounding, midwifery, and medicine, and they are 
supplying the need for trained workers in other 
hospitals and schools. There is great need for more 
buildings to accommodate students and staff, as 
well as wards for patients, general and private. 

The far-reaching influence of the college will be 
realized by looking at the map. Students come from 

21 8 A Crusade of Compassion 


South Madras, Bombay, and Baluchistan; in the 
West from central India and the United Provinces; 
the total number under training is one hundred and 
thirty-five. Most encouraging testimony has been 
received about the work of various graduates. One 
doctor who recently visited the college wrote, "Lud- 
hiana Medical College is the hope of India. The 
graduate we have as our assistant certainly speaks 
highly for the transformation made there in the 
lives of Indian girls." 

The representatives of the various Mission Boards 
in South India, in a different climate, in a different 
language area, and with the same urgent need, have 
long been planning and praying for a similar institu- 
tion in the South. Government has looked favorably 
upon the plan, has granted land and promises annual 

^ J As the English name, Hewlett, of the 

Amritsar Mission is enshrined in the 
Medical School at Ludhiana in the North, the 
American name, Scudder, of the Arcot Mission, is , . 
closely associated with that at Vellore in the South, i I 

In 1895, Dr. Louisa H. Hart, then in charge of the 
medical work for women in the famous Arcot Mission 
(Reformed Church), perceived that the strategic 
point for a hospital for women and children was 
Vellore. Ida Scudder, granddaughter of Dr. John 
Scudder, first medical missionary to the Orient, was 
at that time in the United States, having just com- 
pleted her course in medicine. Upon her was laid 
the urgent request to the home churches for the 
means to establish such a hospital. "Doctor Ida" 
as she is affectionately termed, was successful in 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 219 

this undertaking, the result being the admirable 
Mary Taber Schell Hospital at Vellore. This was 
opened in 1903 under the care of Doctors Scudder 
and Hart and is in all respects signally successful. 
Ten years later the crying need for a medical school 
for the native women of the South could no longer 
be denied, and steps were taken toward its consum- 
mation. A Board of Governors (interdenomina- 
tional) was appointed in America and Great Britain 
to co-operate with a General Council in India for 
the establishment of the first Women's Medical 
College of South India. 

It is with deep emotion that we in this far country 
read in the columns of The Madras Mail for "Tuesday 
evening, August 13, 1918," the account of the formal 
opening by H. E. Lord Pentland, Governor of Ma- 
dras. The Governor was welcomed by Dr. Anna S. 
Kugler, the distinguished head of the Guntur Medi- 
cal Mission of the American Evangelical Lutheran 
Church. Dr. Kugler alluded to the fact that the 
first Principal of the new Medical School (Dr. Ida 
Scudder) is granddaughter of the first medical mis- 
sionary to India and a member of a family that has 
given "eighty-four of its members to labor for the 
uplift, in body and soul, of the people of India." 
Space cannot be given here for extracts from the 
speeches of the Governor and other distinguished 
guests, all strongly emphasizing the demand for the 
new institution, nor for the memorial addressed on 
that occasion to the Governor by Dr. Ida Scudder, 
a historic document of the first order in interest and 
importance in the development of medical work in 
India by women for women. 

220 A Crusade of Compassion 


China not left China, where co-education is thus 
*^^"^- far impracticable, has three schools 

of medicine for women; that established by the 
Presbyterian Board, North, in Canton under Dr. 
Mary Fulton, the Union Medical College at Peking, 
and the School at Soochow under the Southern 
Methodist Episcopal Board, with which Dr. Love 
and Dr. Polk are connected. The last-named institu- 
tion will doubtless be merged ere long in the proposed 
Union Medical School of Shanghai. There will then 
remain three firmly established schools for Chinese 
women medical students, planted at three strategic 
points, and of these two will be Union, one only 
representing a single denomination. This illustrates 
the strong movement towards missionary consolida- 
tion. Here China is leading the way and furnishing 
a striking example. 

Last April there met in Nanking a "Federal 
Council" composed of delegates from five synods 
and twenty-two presbyteries and representatives of 
the London Missionary Society and of the American 
Board. They formed a federation and took the name 
"The Allied Church of Jesus Christ in China." 
Medical schools, theological schools, universities for 
men and colleges for women are to be under this 
federated body, instead of under separate denomina- 
tions, as heretofore, and all Christian churches at 
work in China are invited to join. 

From a vivid description of Peking Union Medical 
College by Mrs. F. H. Sheets we give interesting 

For years a medical college for women has been 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 221 

a dream of Dr. Anna D. Gloss and the pioneer 
doctors ot other missions. A few years ago the 
denominations working here in Peking formed a 
plan for union higher educational work for women. 
A union college of liberal arts was founded and 
housed upon the Congregational compound; a union 
medical college was assigned to the Methodist com- 
pound; and a union Bible training school of very 
high grade was designed for the Presbyterian com- 
pound. In each case the missionary society upon 
whose compound the college was located was to be 
responsible for the building and equipment, and all 
denominations were to share in making up the faculty 
and in the running of the school. 

It seemed wise to use the old hospital for the 
medical school, remodeling and adapting it to that 
purpose, and to put up a new and larger building 
for the Elizabeth Sleeper Davis Memorial Hospital. 
Therefore, the women asked for forty thousand 
dollars from the women at home, with which to 
buy land and to erect the new building and remodel 
the old one. They secured a fine piece of land across 
from the former hospital gate, and there they now 
have a splendid hospital with accommodations for 
nurses. The old hospital building, which, by the 
way, is really not an old building at all — only about 
ten years — but was called that to distinguish it from 
the new building, was remodeled and converted into 
the Union Medical College for Women. 

The college offers a five-year course to middle 
school graduates, but it hopes soon to raise the 
entrance requirements to include two years in college. 

222 A Crusade of Compassion 


Two classes have already been graduated. The three 
graduates of last June are in mission hospitals in 
Shantung and Fukien Provinces. 

The American members of the family form an 
interesting group. One always mentions first Dr. 
Gloss, whose very heart is built into this institution. 
Dr. Gloss has been a medical missionary in Peking 
for more than twenty-five years, and went through 
the siege of Peking. 

Dr. Leonard of the Presbyterian Church is dean 
of the college, and Dr. Bash, from the same mission, 
is another member of the faculty. 

Dr. Stryker was a Methodist missionary in Foo- 
chow, but is now a valuable member of this faculty. 

Dr. Manderson, a Methodist Episcopal missionary, 
has just returned from furlough, during which she 
took advanced work in the colleges at home, and 
comes back with splendid preparation and a good 
knowledge of the language. 

And Dr. Heath, who had a most enviable record 
in college at home, is a Baptist, is supported by an 
Episcopalian lady, and is working under the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Board, having taken work in the 
college that was begun by a Presbyterian woman. 

These doctors are exceptional women and form 
the nucleus of a proposed faculty of which any 
institution might be proud. To this faculty are added 
some of the men physicians from the Union Medical 
College for Men. 

The proposed Union Medical College at Shanghai 
will have a unique work in China, that of teaching 
medicine in English to Chinese women. It will not 
lack for highly qualified pupils from the best homes 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 223 

of China, some of them graduates of the native 
Union Colleges at Peking and Nanking, and they 
are eagerly appropriating it and reaching out for 

The Church now has the opportunity and the 
privilege through this college to mould the lives of 
the higher class young women and through them to 
mould the lives of all the Central China women. If 
not grasped now, we venture to say that within ten 
years this opportunity will have passed forever from 
the hands of the Church. The possibility of the 
medical profession in China consisting wholly of 
non-Christian men and women is one to be regard- 
ed with grave anxiety. 

China's suffering women, the overworked doctors, 
the closed hospitals are begging for women doctors. 
The number of women physician missionaries from 
America seems to be decreasing each year. The 
Mission Boards appeal in vain for them. Why not 
train the Chinese women to be physicians? What 
stands in the way ? Not the customs of the country, 
nor the lack of desire to study medicine, nor the 
lack of preparation on the part of Chinese women, 
but the dearth of teaching and equipment. 

The prospects of the new Union College at Shang- 
hai are bright indeed. The Woman's Union Mission- 
ary Society has most generously offered as foundation 
for its work the famous Margaret Williamson Hos- 
pital (see Chapter III), wonderfully located and 
equipped. The school will provide training for the 
present for all Eastern and Central China. With the 
preparation afforded in science at Ginling College, 
Nanking, there is every hope that this institution 

224 A Crusade of Compassion 

will reach full college grade within a short time. 

We pause and look around us and far afield, but 
the story is told. In all Asia and Africa (save for a 
small and tentative beginning in Korea), this is the 
sum of qualified training for native women physicians 
on native ground under missionary auspices. 

But the beginning is made and the prime factor 
here is not quantity, but quality. In our first chapter 
we established the point that women have made 
good as medical missionaries. It is not more difficult 
to prove that Asiatic women have made good as 
Christian physicians. In India we point to Dr. Kar- 
markar and Dr. Joshi and Dr. Ma Sau Sa, referr- 
ing the reader for a more extended list to the 
fourth chapter of Women Workers of the Orient^ 
by Margaret E. Burton, our last year's study book. 
It would be a welcome task to sound the praises of 
these eminent and distinguished medical "trail- 
makers" for their Hindu sisters, but their story is 
too well-known to call for repetition here. It is well 
to convince ourselves that the torch which they have 
borne is to be handed on to others inspired by like 
high motives, for others are pressing forward. 

The name of Dr. Anna S. Kugler,* for thirty years 
head of the Lutheran Hospital at Guntur, South 
India, has long been one to conjure by. We can rely 
upon Dr. Kugler not to overstate as she introduces 
to us her assistant in hospital work. Miss P. Paru 
Ammal, a graduate of Madras Government Medical 

* See The King's Highway ^ H. B. Montgomery, pp. 79 and 80 and 
World Missions and Worlds Peace, C. A. Mason, pp. ao6, 207, United 
Study Serier, 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 225 

She came to us, says Dr. Kugler, in January, 191 1, and I 
hope she will be able to remain with us for some years. She 
comes from the Malabar Coast, and is eldest daughter of a 
prominent, high caste Hindu lawyer. That he is singularly 
liberal is shown by the liberal education which he has given his 
daughters and by the fact that he has written several books 
against idolatry and in defence of Christianity. That Miss Paru 
is herself a Christian she attributes in large measure to her 
father's teaching of the New Testament. 

Coming among us a stranger, she has made for herself a 
place that any young Indian woman might be glad to have. 
Just out of college, with no experience, she has gone on from 
day to day gradually acquiring an experience, so that for months 
she has done almost all the dispensary work; and so much is 
she liked by the people that our dispensary attendances have 
greatly increased, and our average daily attendance has gone 
from eighty to more than one hundred. Quiet, ladylike, digni- 
fied, gentle, and withal intelligent and trained, she can see one 
hundred and fifty patients of a morning, and then be ready to 
help in the wards in the afternoon. She is of increasing help in 
the surgical and maternity work, and it is a great help to have 
her do the laboratory work. She has also a real missionary 
spirit, so that she is only too glad to teach a class in the Sunday 
School, to take a midweek Bible class and to superintend the 
Bible work at the dispensary. 

It is a great pleasure to me to testify to the high opinion I 
have of her professionally, and to the affection that I have for 
her as a friend. No one could have been more fortunate in the 
experiment with a medical assistant, and I hope that when the 
women of the Church remember us in prayer they will remem- 
ber, too, our much-loved Miss Paru, who is having such an 
influence for good among her Indian sisters. It is a new sight 
in this part of India to see an Indian lady doctor. Already one 
of the little daughters of the rajah of EUore has announced that 
she intends to study medicine and be like Miss Paru. 

And now we have a native Telugu girl who has 
qualified to practice medicine. We hail her as the 
first of her race to attain this honor; we welcome 

226 A Crusade of Compassion 


her to the Battalion of Life. May many follow in 
her train! Her name is Y. Nandama; her grand- 
parents were baptized by Dr. Clough on that mem- 
orable day when two thousand, two hundred and 
twenty-two received baptism; her parents are teach- 
ers in the Girls' School at Kanagari. When Nandama 
had graduated from the Girls' High School at Nel- 
lore, she entered upon a four years' course in medi- 
cine at lyudhiana Medical College, a week's journey 
from her home, where she was graduated, April, 
191 8, with the degree of M.P.L. which signifies 
Medical Practitioner License, the degree of M.D. 
(to which she would be entitled in our country) 
not being granted to women in India. Girls of 
South India henceforth, seeking to follow in Nan- 
dama's steps, will not be forced to travel to Ludhiana 
to obtain their training; Vellore Medical School is 
now open to them! Nandama is now at work in 
Nellore in the Baptist Woman's Hospital, and has 
proved herself steadfast and indispensable under 
difficult conditions. 

Turning now to China, we greet again her two 
conspicuous pioneers, Mary Stone and Ida Kahn, 
of whose career we learned somewhat in Chapter 
III. These two leading spirits in their steadfast 
devotion to the service of healing among their 
sisters in China have established beyond question 
the capacity of the Chinese to serve in the Battalion 
of Life. Contemporary with these two, and belong- 
ing essentially in their group, is Dr. Hii King Eng, 
head surgeon of the Woolston Memorial Hospital 
at Foochow. She, like Dr. Stone and Dr. Kahn, 
came to this country to seek a medical education; 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 227 

this she secured in the Woman's Medical College 
of Philadelphia. In 1895, she returned to her native 
city under appointment as a regular medical mis- 
sionary of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. As the first 
Chinese woman to receive the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine in a foreign land, Dr. Hii King Eng is 
"an honor to her race and a joy to the Society under 
whose auspices she works." 

Following in her steps we see Li Bi Cu, daughter 
of Christian Chinese parents, who was brought to 
America for education in girlhood and graduated 
with honor from the Woman's Medical College of 
Philadelphia. On her return to China, in 1905, Dr. 
Li was appointed head of the Methodist Episcopal 
Mission Hospital about to be built at Ngucheng, 
Fukien Province. In addition to the care of her pa- 
tients this young physician was called upon to over- 
see the building and furnishing of the new hospital 
dedicated, in 1907, to the healing of women and 
children in the name of the Great Physician. Here 
at her post, through dark days and bright, with no 
competent assistants. Dr. Li stands, a good soldier 
of Christ Jesus, keeping forever burning the light in 
a dark place. In 1911, the report of her hospital 
showed three hundred and sixty-five in-patients, 
five thousand, nine hundred and eighty-five visits 
to the dispensary, five hundred and fifty-seven pa- 
tients seen in their homes and the total number of 
patients treated six thousand, eight hundred and 
ninety-eight. Surely, a brave record! 

Time fails us to tell of others, no less worthy, who 
are laboring heart and soul to save the women and 

228 A Crusade of Compassion 


children of their native China from preventable 
suffering and death. There is Dr. Loh, head physi- 
cian now in the David Gregg Hospital at Canton, 
Dr. Tsao in charge of the Friends' Hospital in Nan- 
king, and others who are entering into the labors of 
these. Dr. Tsao has rendered distinguished service 
as a lecturer on scientific subjects on the faculty of 
Ginling College. Margaret E. Burton gives account 
of an additional number of young Chinese medical 
women in her interesting book, The Education of 
Women in China. 

A Korean girl In our fourth chapter mention was 
physician. made of Esther Kim Pak, pupil and 

protegee of Dr. R. S. Hall in Korea. The name 
Esther was given the little Korean girl when she 
was baptized on profession of Christian faith, when 
about fifteen years of age. At sixteen, she was mar- 
ried to Mr. Pak and her life of active usefulness 
began. Studying constantly under Dr. Hall in the 
hospital at Seoul she became familiar with the 
symptoms and treatment of disease; the purpose of 
studying medicine was aroused. When Dr. Hall 
decided to return for a time to America after the 
death of her husband, Esther begged to go with her 
that she might pursue her cherished desire of study- 
ing medicine. Both husband and wife, accordingly, 
accompanied Mrs. Hall and Esther set herself 
steadily to gain the training she so coveted. Her 
persistence was fairly heroic. Mrs. Hall went back 
to Korea; Mr. Pak died of tuberculosis, but still she 
stood fast by her purpose. 

In 1896, Esther entered the Woman's Medical 
College of Baltimore, the first Korean woman to 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 229 

take up the study of medicine. Here she obtained 
her degree in the year 1 900, and then, bereft of her 
young husband, she hastened back alone to Korea, 
three years after Mrs. Hall had returned thither. 

For ten years Dr. Esther Pak labored with whole- 
souled devotion for her own people. ''She was always 
ready with trained skill and loving sympathy to 
help them in the dispensary clinic, the hospital 
ware}, or in their humble homes. She was also of 
great assistance in the Bible Institutes for women, 
teaching most enthusiastically any subject required 
from hygiene to church history. 

"May 28, 1909, was a crowning day for her and 
for those who had tried to awaken a deep interest 
in the education of Korea's daughters as well as 
sons. That day the Woman's Educational and the 
Woman's Enterprise Societies combined in showing 
honors to Korea's first women college graduates, 
Mrs. Esther Kim Pak, M.D., and Mrs. N. K. Ha, 
M.A. They were invited to the capital, and were 
conveyed by carriages in grand style to the old 
Mulberry Palace grounds, where addresses were 
delivered, appropriate gold medals awarded to each, 
followed by a collation. The picture of Dr. Pak, in 
her college cap and gown, was taken at this time; 
it shows the gold medal with which she was decora- 
ted, and of which she was justly proud. But already 
disease had laid its hand upon the young doctor. 
After ^ several years of a brave, but losing battle 
with tuberculosis, she laid down her work here, 
April 13, 1 9 10, to receive her coronation on high. 
Who will take up her work? — a work now so over- 

230 A Crusade of Compassion 

whelming that it cannot possibly be met with 
few foreign doctors." 

Dr. Baldomera Esteban, a native Filipina, a gradu- 
ate of the Medical Department of Philippine Univer- 
sity, is the first interne to serve the Mary J. Johnston 
Hospital. Tributes to her devotion, skill, and pur- 
pose are emphatic. We hail in her the pioneer of 
her people. We are now only in the earliest stage of 
Christian medical missions in these Islands which 
are under our own American Government; great is 
the promise if the Churches of America awake to 
their responsibility. 

Women Physicians Three members of the teaching force 
for siam. of ^^g Harriet M. House School for 

Girls at Bangkok, Siam, have gone this last year to 
Manila, Philippine Islands, to take up the study of 
medicine and nursing, two of them to fit themselves 
to become the first women physicians in Siam, and 
the third to become a trained nurse. One of the 
young women medical students is the sister of a 
graduate of Harvard University who is soon to 
return to Siam as a civil engineer. The other is 
the daughter of the Attorney-General of Siam. 

As we reflect upon these native women physicians 
whose names have now rapidly passed in review, 
with those others which might be added, the conclu- 
sion IS— fit, but few. Among the suffering and neg- 
lected millions of their sisters the number is indeed 
piteously inadequate, and inadequate it must remain 
unless reinforcements are sent and sent without 
delay to the Battalion of Life. The medical woman 
who goes to heathen peoples goes not merely to 
minister to the sick and suffering, not chiefly to 

Africa and the Promise of the Future 231 

break down, by the power of her presence, the walls 
which shut in the Oriental woman or hold as a beast 
of burden the African woman; she goes to act as 
herald, exemplar, teacher and guide for the awaken- 
ing womanhood of the nations **afar off." 

For the women of heathendom there must be for 
generations to come, in time of sickness, utter neglect 
or the service of their own sex. ''By women doctors 
alone J' says Dr. Moorshead (the italics are his) 
''can the very great amount of pitiful sufering prevailing 
amongst immense multitudes of heathen arid Moslem 
women be effectually alleviated or cured''* This point 
needs no further emphasis; it has the emphasis of 
every chapter of our book. From the heathen point 
of view woman's function is to serve and to suffer; 
let her serve, let her suffer, her death is no great 

At the call of need overseas in these last four 
years all over our country girls and women have 
sprung to their feet, ready to go, ready to do to the 
limit of their strength, to dare and to die in minis- 
tration to the wounded soldiers of a score of nations. 
And now the call to go still comes, not less loud, 
more piercing yet in its insistence; your sisters in 
Asia and Africa agonize and suffer needless death 
from cruel neglect and worse every hour of every 
day. You can help, you can heal, you can save. 
Hasten to their relief. 

Human experience has produced no challenge more 
poignant, no service more gloriously rewarded, than 
that of medical missions. The discipline of sacrifice, 

* The Appeal of Medical Missions. R. S. Moorshead, Fleming H. 
Revell Company, 1913. 

22'1 A Crusade of Compassion 

the blessedness of casting off the bonds of ease for 
heroic ends which our young American women have 
of late been set to learn, must not be a passing 
thing; it must not fail of its deeper working. The 
ministry of healing for the women of Asia and Africa 
today sounds a summons which the women of 
America must meet — will meet — no less nobly than 
they have met the call to the war zone of Europe. 

Surely the future looks black enough, yet it holds a hope, 
a single hope. One, and one power only, can arrest the descent 
and save us. That is the Christian religion. Democracy is but 
a side issue. The paramount issue underlying the issue of 
Democracy is the religion of Christ and Him crucified; the bed- 
rock of civilization; the source and resource of all that is worth 
having in the world that is, that gives promise in the world to 
come; not as an abstraction; not as a huddle of sects and fac- 
tions; but as a mighty force and principle of being. ... If the 
world is to be saved from destruction — it will be saved alone 
by the Christian religion. ' 

Henry Watterson. 

The missionary enterprise is the one indisputably Christian 
flag flying at present; it is the only answer that the Church can 
make to a world at war. Here is our substitute for the way of 
war actually at work; here is the other way which we are being 
challenged to show. To go forth to uncivilized or hostile peoples 
with no force behind one but the love of God and no wages asked 
but to share the suffering of Christ is the real redemptive enter- 

W. E. Orchard. 


Africa, status of women, 28; and 
the promise of tiie future, 193- 
232; the menace of Islam, 193- 
195; methods of Mohammedan 
missionaries, 194; large force in 
training, 194; native religion, 
195; waste and torture of life, 
196; diseases, 196-197; the 
witch doctor, 198-200; charms 
and amulets, 199-200; houses 
changed to homes, 200-201; 
Livingstone's legacy, 201-2; 
apostles of peace, 202-203; the 
"not-afraid" religion, 203-204; 
a brave woman, 204-205; med- 
ical work described, 205-206; 
one who makes glad, 206-207; 
Dr. Mabie: an appreciation, 
207-209; a Congo general con- 
ference, 209-211; the appeal of, 
2II-2I2; statistics, 213 

Allen, Dr., work in Korea, 124-125 

Ancestors, worship of, 78; in the 
Philippines, 132 

Arabia, 172-177; abandoned to 
Mohammedanism for centuries, 
172; missions organized in, 172; 
medical missions, 173; statis- 
tics, 213; see Arab women 

Arab women, home life of, 174; 
social life of, 174-175; feeling of, 
about polygamy, 175; medical 
work amongst, 175-177; con- 
fidence in medical missionary, 
176; see Women 

Armenians, deaths of, 182 

Babies, better, 140-141 

Battalion of life, the, 11-42; need 
for, 17-24; personnel of, 24-34; 
ideals of, 34-35; qualifications 
for, 35-36; review of, 36-41 

Benn, Dr. Rachel, quoted, 88-93 

Bible, the open, 136 

Bible woman, work in hospital, 

58, 99-100; work in dispensaries 

in Philippines, 142; in Egypt, 

Bishop, Isabella Bird, quoted, 22, 

42,77, 122, 212 
Bixby, Dr., quoted, 88 
Blackwell, Elizabeth, 25 
Bond, Dr. and Mrs. A. A., quoted, 

Brahmanism, 46-47 
Bretthauer, Dr. Emily, 99-102 
Brotherhood, recognition of, 1 1 
Brown, Dr. A. J., quoted, 11, 128, 

145-146, 172 
Brown, Dr. Edith, 216-217 
Bubonic plague in Philippines, 137 
Budden, Miss, quoted, 158 
Buddhism, status of women under, 

27-28, 48-49; in China, 78; an 

obstacle to Christianity in Siam, 

145; how lepers are regarded by, 

Bullock, Rev. G. M., quoted, 158- 


Calverley, Dr. E. E., quoted, 173- 

Cammack, Mrs. Dr., quoted, 205 
Canton, equipment at, 105-108 
Carey, William, 155 
Challenge of the time to the 

church, II 
Chandag, work at, 157-160 
Charms in Africa, 199-200 
Child life, conservation of, 22-24 
China, status of women in, 27; 
chapter on, 75-1 14; compared 
with India, 75-77; religions of, 
78; fear in religions, 78-80; 


A Crusade of Compassion 

medical need of, 80-82; women 
of, 82-97; statistics, 212-213; 
medical schools, 220-224; native 
Christian physicians, 226-228 
Chinese, inventions made by, 76; 
progress of, 77; chained to dead, 
80; books translated into, 108 
Chinese women, changed by Chris- 
tianity, 93-96; Li, 94-95; intel- 
lectual capacity, 95-96; serious- 
ness, 95-96; medical schools for, 
96-97; fear of and prejudice 
against foreigners, loo-ioi; as 
surgeons, 101-102, 112; value 
to, of medical missions, 11 4; see 
Cholera in Philippines, 136, 137 
Cho-sen, see Korea 
Christ, eloquent appreciation of 
work of, 42; comes to Korea, 
1 24-131; revealed to Mary 
Reed her work for lepers, 158; 
value of individual soul dis- 
covered by, 200 
Christian civilization, uplifts wom- 
an, 28; apostles of, in Siam, 146 
Christian unity realized in Turkey, 
179; in Syria, 183-184; value of, 
recognized in Africa, 210; in 
medical colleges in India, 216, 
219; in China, 220-221 
Christianity and sacredness of 
human life, 16; clinical, 56-60; 
interest in, aroused by medical 
missions, 61; spiritual harvest 
from medical mission, 70-72; 
changes Chinese women, 93-96; 
how, brings healing, 97-102; 
languor an obstacle to, in 
Siam, 145; changes houses to 
homes in Africa, 200-201; casts 
out fear, 203-204 
Church, new day of, 12-13; battle- 
cry of, 13; closed by war in 
Turkey, 181 
Civilization, betrayal of, 11 
Clinical Christianity, 56-60 
Commission, the, of medical mis- 
sionary, 17 


Confucius, teachings of, 78, 83 

Congo general conference, 209-21 1 

Conservation of life aim of medi- 
cal missionaries, 15-16; of child 
life, 22-24 

Converts made by work of a med- 
ical missionary, 70-72 

Conway, Miss Sarah A., 204-205 

Cu, Dr. Li Bi, 227 

Customs of Koreans, 118-121 

Dale, Mrs. Gerald F., quoted, 184 
Danforth, Elizabeth Skelton, me- 
rnorial hospital, 108-113; sta- 
tistics of work of, 113 
Danner, W. M., quoted, 150-152 
Davidson, Dr., quoted, 37 
Davis, Richard H., quoted, 193 
Dead, Chinese chained to, 80 
Dearmer, Percy, quoted, 163 
Demoniacal possession, 19 
Demonism in Korea, 1 20-1 21 
Demons, Chinese dread of, 79-80; 
infants said to be, 93; fear of, 
in Philippines, 139; see Evil 
Dennis, Dr., quoted, 79-80 
Disease, native treatment of, 19- 
22; cause of, 22-24; in Africa, 
Dispensaries, branch, desirable, 
60-61; in the Philippines, 142; 
in Siam, 147; means for convert- 
ing Mohammedans, 169; in- 
creasing work in, in Africa, 203; 
see Hospitals, Medical missions 
and Medical missionaries 
Dispensary practice, 54-65 
Du Bose quoted, 78 
Dysentery in Philippines, 137-138 

Eddy, Dr. Mary P., first woman 
given degree to practice medi- 
cine by Turkish government, 
Edwards, Dr. M., quoted, 80-82 
Egypt, 188-191; the Copts, 188; 
English and American influence, 
188-191; college of women at 
Cairo, 190-191; statistics, 213 



Ellers, Miss, 125 
Elmslie, Dr., quoted, 37 
Eng, Dr. Hii King, 226-227 
English influence in Egypt, 188- 

Epidemics frequent in India, 63-64 
Esteban, Dr. Baldomera, 230 
Evangelical work, door opened 
for, by medical missionary, 31- 
32, 42; in zenana, 50; in mis- 
sionary hospital, 99-102; aided 
by medical mission, 114; in hos- 
pital in Philippines, 143; med- 
ical missions only key to Mo- 
hammedan lock, 167 
Evil eye, fear of, 20 
Evil spirits, protection against, 
20; as cause of disease, 50-51; 
and maternity, 88-93; see De- 
Exorcist in Korea, 1 20-1 21 

Far East, lepers in, 149-160 
Fatalism illustrated, 62-63 
Fear of evil eye, 20; bondage to, 
21; the motive of religion in 
China, 78-80; Chinese, of for- 
eigners, loo-ioi; of demons in 
Philippines, 139; Christianity 
casts out, 203-204 
Filipinos, characteristics of, 134- 

Filipino women, status of, 134- 
135; will repay sacrifices of 
American women in her behalf, 
1 40; see Women 

Foot-binding, 84-85 

Fulton, Dr. Mary, work as medi- 
cal missionary, 33-34, 105-108 

Future, promise of the, 212-232; 
see Promise of the future 

Ganges river, belief 01 Hindu 
concerning, 60-61 

Geomancy, 79-80 

Gospel, twofold, of medical mis- 
sionary, 3S 

Goudie, Rev. W., quoted, 71-7^- 

Gracey, Mrs. J. T., quoted, 39 

Hackett medical college for wom- 
en, 107-108 

Hall, Dr. Rosetta Sherwood, med- 
ical work in Korea, 128-131; 
work for blind, 129; value of 
work officially recognized, 129- 


Hannington, Dr. M., quoted, 86 

Harem, see Zenana 

Harnack, quoted, 200 

Hart, Dr. Louise H., 218-219 

Healing brought by Christianity, 

Heath, Miss Ruth C, quoted, 60 

Heathen civilization enslaves wom- 
an, 28 

Heathen nations defined, 17; 
population of, 17 

Henry, Dr., quoted, 80 

Hewlett, Miss, 29-31, 215 

Hindu, characteristics of, 46; 
belief of, concerning Ganges 
river, 61-62; fatalism of, 62 

Hospital, typical women's, 55-56; 
typical routine in, 57-^0; tes- 
timony of patients, 70; first 
missionary, in China, 97; rou- 
tine, 99-102; Margaret William- 
son, 103-105; David Gregg, 
106-108; Elizabeth Skelton 
Danforth memorial, 108-113; 
first, for lepers, 155-156; at 
Teheran, 168; at Kaimosi, Af- 
rica, 202-203 

Hospitality of Koreans, 119 

Hospital practice, 54-65 

Hospitals in China, 102-114; in 
Philippines, 136, 139; in Siam, 
147; in Arabia, 173; in Turkey 
before the war, 179-180; used 
for Turkish soldiers largely 
with Christian attendants, 181; 
see Dispensaries, Medical mis- 
sions and Medical missionaries 

Hume, Dr. Ruth, quoted, 64 

Hysteria in the zenana, 50-51 

Ideals of Battalion of life, 34-35 
Ignorance and medical need, 18- 


A Crusade of Compassion 


22; barrier against sanitation, 
60-63; causes great loss of life 
in Africa, 196-200 

India, status of women in, 26-27, 
47; chapter on, 45-72; general 
conditions, 45-46; social char- 
acteristics, 46; classic ground 
for missions, 49; epidemics fre- 
quent, 63-64; medical schools 
in, 67; curse of, 68; compared 
with China, 75-77; work for 
lepers, 156-157; statistics, 212; 
shows the way to success, 215; 
medical colleges of, 215-219; na- 
tive Christian physician of, 224- 

Indian women, status of, 26-27, 
47; see Women 

Infanticide, 86 

Infant mortality, appalling rate 
of, 22; tetanus and, 86; in Philip- 
pines, I 40-1 41 

Infants, opium given to, 61; diet 
of, in Philippines, 141 

Inoculation opposed in Orient, 64 

Insanity and demoniacal posses- 
sion, 19 

International mind should be 
cultivated, ii; initiated by the 
church, 12 

Inventions of Chinese, 76 

Islam, 47-48, 163-164; death the 
penalty for apostasy to the state 
church of, 167; pride of, crum- 
bling, 178; the menace of, in Af- 
rica, 193-195; methods of Mo- 
hammedan missionaries, 194; 
large force in training, 194; see 

Japan, work for lepers in, 157 
Japanese rule in Korea, 117-118 
Jeffery, Frances, quoted, 57-58 

Kahn, Dr. Ida, 109, 226 
Kimpese, Dr. Mabie at, 207-209 
Kishore, Pundit Nund, 39 
Kiu-Kiang, hospital at, 108-113 
Koran, teachings of, 166 

Korea, 117-131; geographical po- 
sition of, 117-118; apparently 
without a religion, 120; demon- 
ism, 120-121; native medical 
practice, 1 20-1 21, 122-124; 
Christ comes to, 1 24-131; open- 
ed to the world, 124; work of 
Dr. Allen, 124-125; Miss EUers 
appointed royal physician, 125; 
medical missions in, 125-126; 
Pentecost in, 126-128; work of 
Dr. Rosetta Sherwood Hall, 
1 28-13 1; work for lepers, 154- 
155; statistics, 213; native Chris- 
tian physician, 228-230 

Koreans, racial traits, religions 
and customs of, 11 8-1 21; un- 
cleanliness, 118; improving un- 
der Japanese rule, 118; hospital- 
ity of, 119; love of children, 119 

Korean women, status of, 121- 
122; see Women 

Kugler, Dr. Anna S., quoted, 224- 

Kwangju leper home, 154-155 

Lambuth, Bishop, 21 1-2 12 

Languor of tropics an obstacle to 
reception of Christianity in 
Siam, 145 

Lao, medical work among, 148-149 

Lawrence, Dr. Caroline C, quot- 
ed, 190 

Lepers, work among, in Far East, 
149-160; how regarded by Bud- 
dhism, 150; work for, in Siam, 
150-153; make contribution to 
American Bible Society, 152- 
153; work for, in the Philippines, 
153; work for, in Korea, 154- 
155; first hospital for, 155-156; 
work in India, 156-157; work 
in Japan, 157; work of Mary 
Reed at Chandag, 157-160; 
called to work by Christ, 158 

Li defined, 94-95 

Life, the battalion of, 11-42; 
sacredness of, 16; religion and, 
77-82; see Conservation of life 



Life-saving stations, three, 102- 

Li Hung Chang, quoted, 75 
Livingstone's, Dr., legacy to the 

missionary world, 201-202 
London, Bishop of, quoted, 167 
Ludiana medical school, 215-218 
Ludlow, Dr. Irving, quoted, loi 
Lynch, Dr. F. P., 209-211 

Mabie, Dr. Catherine, 33y 207-209 
McDougall, Miss, quoted, 217 
McKean, Dr., quoted, 148-149, 

Marriage in Korea, 1 21-122 
Maternity cases, treatment of, 

53-54; in China, 88-93 
Matheson, Rev. George, D.D., 

quoted, 42 
Medical college in Philippines, 139 
Medical missionaries, aim of, 15- 
16; commission, 17; call for, 
imperative, 17; vastness of need 
for, 17-18; scope of work of, 29; 
ideals of, 34-35; qualifications 
of, 35-3^1 pioneers, 36-37; 
pioneer women, 37-41; routine 
work of, 57-60, 99-102; village 
clinics, 65; first in China, 97; 
pioneer women, in China, 97- 
98; summary of work, 98-199; 
work of, appreciated in Africa, 
205; work described, 205-206; 
one who makes glad, 206-207; 
devoted work of Dr. Mabie, 
207-209; win in Africa, 211-212; 
see Dispensaries and Hospitals 
Medical missions, blessings of, 22; 
arouse interest in Christianity, 
61; effect of women's work upon 
social fabric in India, 68-72; 
need of recruits for, 68-69; 
Mohammedan testimony as to 
value, 69; testimony of patient 
in hospital, 70; a spiritual har- 
vest from, 70-72; evangelizing 
power of, 1 14; value of, in 
China, 114; in Korea, 125-126; 
in the Philippines, 1 39-1 43; 

results of, in Siam, 147-149; 
among the Lao, 1 48-1 49; only 
key to Mohammedan lock, 167; 
win confidence of Persian wom- 
en, 168; destroy Mohammedan 
prejudice, 170; as aid to success 
of schools, 1 71-172; in Arabia, 
I73> I75~i77» summary of, in 
Turkey before war, 179-180; 
war's wreck, 1 80-181; re-estab- 
lishment of, 182-183; in Syria, 
183-187; in Palestine before 
war, 187; in Egypt, 1 89-191; 
plea for better equipment, 209- 
211; see Promise of the future. 
Dispensaries and Hospitals 
Medical need of China, 80-82 
Medical practice, native, 19-22, 
^3-54; the priest and, 19-22; 
m China, 82; native, in Korea, 
120-121, 122-124; native, in 
Persia, 165-166; native, in Afri- 
ca, 198-200 
Medical progress in Philippines, 


Medical schools for women, 25- 
26; in India, 67, 215-219; in 
China, 96-97, 220-224; at Can- 
ton, 107-108; in Syria, 184 

Midwives in India, 65-66 

Missionary physicians in heathen 
nations, number of, 17-18 

Missionaries, friendliness of Siam- 
ese towards, 145-146; Richard 
Harding Davis on importance 
of work of, 193; witch doctor a 
foe of, 198; Dr. Livingstone's 
ideal of work of, and his legacy, 

Mission hospital helped soldier, 13 

Missions, soldier's testimony in 
favor of, 13-15; India classic 
ground for, 49; obstacles to, in 
Siam, 144-146; effect of world 
war on, in Turkey, 177-178; 
firm foundations for, in Turkey, 
178-179; war's wreck, 1 80-1 81; 
return of missionaries, 182-183 

Mitchell, Dr. Ellen F., work as 


A Crusade of Compassion 

medical missionary, 32-22, 41 

Mohammed, 172 

Mohammedan converts, medical 
missions only means for mak- 
ing, 167; testimony to value of 
medical missions, 69 

Mohammedanism, status of wom- 
en under, 28, 47-48; fatalism, 
63; view of leprosy, 156; life 
under, 164-165; teachings of, 
166; and medical missions, 170; 
dominated Arabia for centuries, 
172; line of medical stations ad- 
vocated as means of checking, 
212; see Islam 

Moorshead, Dr., quoted, 214, 231 

Moslem women, home life of, 174; 
social life of, 174-175; feeling of, 
about polygamy, 175; medical 
work amongst, 175-176; con- 
fidence in medical missionary, 
176; see Women 

Mother, illiterate, a curse, 68 

Napoleon quoted, 75 
Nationalism over-stressed, 1 1 
Nations, see Heathen nations 
Near East, the, 163-191; Islam, 
163-164; Persia, 164-172; Ara- 
bia, 172-177; Turkey, 177-183; 
Syria, 183-187; Egypt, 1 88-191 
Nurses, schools for native, 65-67; 
Julia M. Turner training school, 
107-108; at Kiu-Kiang, 112; in 
Philippines, 140; native Chris- 
tian, in hospital at Iloilo, 143; 
in Syria, 1 84 

Oldham, Bishop, quoted, 138, 140 
Opium, given to infants, 61; 85 
Orchard, W. E., quoted, 232 
Orient, status of women in, 26-28 
Out-patient department, 100 

Palestine freed from Turkish rule, 
186; medical work in, before 
war, 187 

Pak, Dr. Esther Kim, 128, 228-230 

Parish, Dr., quoted, 141 


Parker, Dr. Harriet E., 57-60 

Parker, Dr. Peter, 97 

Patriotism, higher, born, 11 

Patton, Dr., quoted, 193 

Peking union medical college, 220- 

Pentecost in Korea, 126-128 

Persia, 164-172; life under Mo- 
hammedanism, 164-165; Per- 
sian ladies of fashion, 165-166; 
teachings of Mohammedanism, 
166; medical missions the only 
key to Mohammedan lock, 167; 
mission in Teheran, 168; a dis- 
pensary Christian, 169; general 
survey, 169-171; an Arab lady 
of, 175; statistics, 213 

Persian women, life of, 165-166; 
confidence of, in medical mis- 
sionary, 168; reached through 
dispensaries, 169; see Women 

Philippines, the, 131-143; the 
archipelago, population and lan- 
guage, 131; Races, 131-132; 
Orient and Occident meet, 132- 
134; primitive religion in, 132- 
133; social orders, 133; Spanish 
Catholic influence, 133; priests 
and friars, 133-134; American 
invasion: political, religious, sci- 
entific, 135-139; the open Book, 
136; diseases, 136-138; medical 
missions, 1 39-1 43; fear of de- 
mons and spirits, 139; better 
babies, 140-141; dispensaries, 
142; native Christian nurses at 
Iloilo, 143; work for lepers in, 
153; statistics, 213 

Physicians, schools for native, 
65-67; Christian, most influen- 
tial people in Near East, 167; 
native, demanded, 214; new re- 
cruits called for, 214-21 5; Asiat- 
ic women as Christian, 224-225 

Piper, Dr. and Mrs. Arthur L., 
work of, 207 

Polygamy, 175 

Potter, Dr. Ellen R., quoted, 25-26 

Poulter, Dr. Mabel, quoted, 86 



Prejudice, Chinese, against for- 
eigners, lOO-IOI 
Presbyterian mission, Siam, 146 
Priest, native, and medical prac- 
tice, 19-22; and cause of disease, 
20-22; and friar in Philippines, 

133-134 , . ^ 
Priesthood exploits fears, 78 
Promise of the future, 212-232; 
statistics of medical missions, 
213; native physicians demand- 
ed, 214; new recruits called for, 
214-215; India shows the way, 
215; medical schools: India, 
215-219; China, 220-224; Asiat- 
ic women as Christian physi- 
cians: Indian, 224-226; Chinese, 
226-228; Korean, 228-230; Fil- 
ipino, 230; Siamese, 230; in- 
dispensable, 231; can give a 
blessed service, 231-232 
Purdah, see Zenana 

Reed, Mary, 157-160 

Reifsnyder, Dr. Elizabeth, 103-105 

Religion and life, 77-82; in Korea, 
1 1 8-1 21; in Philippines, 132- 
^33^ 135-136; of Africans, 195 

Richter, Dr. J., quoted, 168 

Riddell, Miss, 157 

Roosevelt, Theodore, quoted, 212 

St. Catherine's hospital, 30-31 
Sanitation in India, 60-63 
Schools, training, for native nurses 
and physicians, 65-67; at Kiu- 
Kiang, 112; in the Philippines, 
135; made successful by med- 
ical missions, 1 71-172; closed 
by war in Turkey, 1 80-1 81 
Science will kill superstition, 62; 

in Philippines, 135-139 
Scudder, Dr. Ida, 218-219 
Shanghai, 103-105, 222-224 
Shattuck, Elizabeth, 25 
Sheets, Mrs. F. H., quoted, 220- 

Sheldon, Martha, 31-32, 159 
Siam, 1 44-1 49; obstacles to mis- 

sionary work, 144-I46; soil un- 
receptive, 145; encouragements, 
145-146;- survival of Presby- 
terian mission, 146; apostles of 
Christian civilization, 146; re- 
sults of medical missions, 147- 
149; work for lepers in, 150-153; 
statistics, 213 
Smallpox in Korea, 123; in Philip- 
pines, 136-137 
Smith, Dr. A. H., quoted, 27, 114 
Sorceress, 1 20-1 21, 122-124 
Soul, value of individual, dis- 
covered by Jesus Christ, 200 
Speer, Dr. Robert E., quoted, 153 
Spirits, see Evil spirits 
Staley, Dr., quoted, $3 
Statistics of medical missions, 212- 

StaufFacher, Dr., work of, 206-207 
Stileman, Bishop, quoted, 171-172 
Stone, Dr. Mary, 108-113, 226 
Stuntz, Bishop H. C, quoted, 131, 


Suicide in China, 87-88 

Superstition and medical need, 18- 
22; barrier against sanitation, 
60-63; can not survive light of 
science, 62; causes great loss of 
life in Africa, 196-200; and 
suffering, 203 

Swain, Dr. Clara, 39-40 

Syria, 183-187; Beirut a mission- 
ary centre, 183-184; Dr. Mary 
P. Eddy first woman given de- 
gree to practice medicine by 
Turkish government, 184-185; 
effect of war on missions, 186; 
Palestine freed from Turkey, 
186; statistics, 213 

Taoism, influence of, 78 
Taylor, Bishop, quoted, 45 
Teheren, mission in, 168-169 
Tenney, Dr., quoted, 111-112 
Thibet, medical work in, 31-32 
Thomas, Dr. R., quoted, 1 42-1 43 
Turkey, 177-183; effect of world 
war on missions in, 177-178; 


A Crusade of Compassion 

new day in, 178; firm founda- 
tions for missions, 178-179; 
Christian unity in, 179; war's 
wreck, 1 80-1 81; return of mis- 
sionaries after, war, 182-183; 
deaths due to war, 182; Pales- 
tine freed from, 186; statistics. 

Turner, Julia M., training school 
for nurses, 107-108 

Uncleanliness of Koreans, 118; 

causes large infant mortality in 

Africa, 197 
Ussher, Dr., of Van, quoted, 179 

Vellore, medical school at, 218-219 
Volunteers, call for, 17 

War, effect of world, on missions 
in Turkey, 177-178; missions 
wrecked by, 180-181; effect of, 
in Syria, 186 

Watterson, Henrv, quoted, 232 

Wife, illiterate, 68, 87 

Williamson, J. R., quoted, 172 

Williamson, Margaret, hospital, 

Wilson, Dr. R. M., quoted, 154- 

155 ^ . ^. 

Witchcraft m Africa, 198 

Witch doctor, 198-200; a foe of 
the missionary, 198; how pre- 
pared for his work, 198-199; 
charms and amulets, 199-200 

Women, status of, in Orient, 26- 
28; in Africa, 28; under religions 
of India, 47; under Mohamme- 

danism, 47-48; under ha^i- 
dhism, 48-49; life of, in zenana, 
50-54; in China, 82-97; inferi- 
ority and subjection of, 82-83; 
seclusion of, 84; foot-binding, 
84-85; use opium, 85; infanti- 
cide, 86; suicide, 87-88; ma- 
ternity, 88-93; Arab, of Persia, 
175; see Arab, Chinese, Filipino, 
Indian, Korean, Moslem and 
Persian women 

Women in medicine, 24-34; early 
opposition to, 24-29; Elizabeth 
Blackwell, 25; Elizabeth Shat-. 
tuck, 25; opposition to, in Eng- 
land, 26; customs demand, 26- 
34; scope of work, 29; have made 
good, 29-34; impact of their 
missionary work upon social 
fabric in India, 68-72; estimate 
of Chinese, 101-102, 112; value 
of, in China, 114; stations op- 
erated by women alone in Tur- 
key during war, 180-181; Dr.. 
Mary P. Eddy first womar 
given degree to practice medi- 
cine by Turkish government., 
184-185; Christian Asiatic: In- 
dian, 224-226; Chinese, 226- 
228; Korean, 228-230; Fili- 
pino, 230; Siamese, 230; in- 
dispensable, 231; can give a 
blessed service, 231-232 

Women physicians, number on 
missionary field, 55 

Worship of ancestors, 78, 132 

Zenana, life of women in, 50-54